Food and Nutrition
Nutritional Value of Milk
Milk: Sources, Kinds, and Benefits 
 
Milk is the first food for humans, and it is seen as the only richest natural food in terms of the nutritional elements the body needs. Similarly, it provides many of the nutritional elements necessary for the growth and maintenance of the human body, in adequate amounts.
 
The human body is in need of milk and its properties throughout their life as it is useful for all ages and groups.
 
Milk Sources:
Milk can be obtained from many different sources, such as goats, cattle, buffalos, and camels; yet, the cow milk is the most popular.
Whatever the milk source is, it is greatly similar in terms of properties; however, the proportions of the nutritional elements slightly vary from one source to another.
 
Milk Types:
Dried Milk:

The fresh milk is evaporated to dryness by manufacturing process while maintaining most of the nutritional elements the fresh milk holds, and with the same proportions. Still, some vitamins and key minerals may be added to the dried milk such as vitamin D.

The dried or powered milk is available as full-fat dry milk with 6-9 month shelf life, or fat-free with two-year shelf life. Having opened the pack, you should store the dried milk in cool, dry place, as well as protecting it against moisture and sun beams.

Long-Term Milk:

The fresh milk is exposed to a high temperature to have it pasteurized, and then it is packed in specially-made packs. The expiry term of that type of milk reaches as many as six months, before it is used outside the refrigerator. After it is used, the pack should be stored in the refrigerator and be used within a week's time.

Fresh Milk:

After the milk is milked and collected, it is pasteurized, and then it is stored cool. It should be stored since the beginning of the production until its expiration which does not go beyond a week as it is spoiled fast.

Domestic Condensed Milk:

Great amounts of sugar are added to the pasteurized fresh milk haveits form condensed. It is rich in fats or milk cream, and it is not considered one of the useful milk types, or one of the milk substitutes. It holds a great deal of sugar and calories. It is used in the dessert ingredients, and it is stored in a cool, dry place. It has 12-month shelf life.

 
Milk-derived Products:
 
  • Milk, Yoghurt, and Hard White Cheese:

       They are products made of fresh milk; hence, they have the same milk composition. They also contain the same nutritional elements, but they differ in terms of the amounts of yeast and water.

If these products contain flavors such as strawberry or chocolate flavor, the proportion of calories only increases without any change in the other properties; providing these additives arewithin the allowed proportions.

  • Creamy Cheese, cream, butter, ice cream, and Labneh: 

They are other products derived from milk, and they are fat substitutes. They are manufactured from the milk fats with little amount of milk. They are not milk substitutes, and they cannot replace it.

 
Milk Health Benefits:
  • Building and Maintaining bone and teeth.
  • Preventing cardiac diseases
  • Keeping the blood pressure at a normal rate.
  • Protecting against some types of cancer such as colon cancer.
  • Diminishing the likelihood of developing the diabetes.
  • Keeping and improving the performance of the nerve system.
  • Helping in growth
  • Improving the digestion process.
  • Boosting the immunity.
  • Protecting the eyesight.
  • Maintaining the skin, hair, and delicate membranes.
  • Treating the dehydration.
  • Providing the body with energy. 
 
Groups In Need of Drinking More Milk:
 
  • Neonates: it is recommended depending on the mother's milk or the artificial milk meant for the breast-fed.
  • The elderly: as we grow in age, the skin or kidney health condition changes, this in turn weakens its ability to produce vitamin D and change it into the active or effective formula.
  • The pregnant and those breast-feeding: are mostly in need of many vitamins, such as vitamin D which the children need to absorb the calcium and form bones.
  • Fractures and after operations.

Factors Affecting Benefiting from the Milk:

  • Having beverages and food containing caffeine, such as fizzy beverages, tea, coffee, and chocolate reduces the absorbing of calcium.
  • Not getting enough intakes of vitamin C rich fruits such as citruses, as it is instrumental in absorbing the calcium from the milk. 
Breaking down the Nutritional Elements in a Cup of Milk:
Nutrients​ Low-Fat Milk ​ Fat-Free Milk ​ Full-Fat Milk​
 Calories​
 102 ​
86 ​ 146​
Fats​
 2mg ​
0mg ​ 8 mg​
Cholesterol ​
12mg ​ 5mg​  24mg​
Sodium ​
107mg ​ 128mg ​ 98mg​
Carbohydrates ​ 13mg ​ 12mg ​ 13mg​
Sugar ​ 13mg ​ 12mg ​ 13mg​
Proteins ​ 8mg ​ 8mg​  8mg​
Dietary ​ 0mg​  0mg ​ 0mg​
 
Daily Needs of Calcium and Vitamin D for all the Age Groups:
 
Age Group
  
Calcium Need
Milligram/Day
Vitamin "D" Need
Microgram/ Day
   ​​Daily Milk Amount   
       Birth- Six months
200 
10   
800-1200 mil/Daily
Six Months- Year
260
10 
800-1200 mil/Daily
1-3 years
700
15
Two Cups
4-8 years
1000
15
Three Cups
9-18 years
1300
15
Three Cups
19-50 years
1000
15
Two Cups
51-70- years (Women)
1200
15
Three Cups
 
 
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