Cancerous Diseases
Lung Cancer
Introduction:
Lung cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells that start off in one or both lungs; and these abnormal cells do not carry out the functions of natural lung cells, and do not develop into healthy ones either, leading to formation of tumors that impede performance of the lung.
 
Causes:
Smoking is often the main cause of lung cancer, both in smokers and in people exposed to secondhand smoke, and also occurs in non-smokers.
 
Types of lung cancer:
Doctors divide lung cancer into two major types based on the appearance of lung cancer cells under the microscope. Your doctor makes treatment decisions based on which major type of lung cancer you have. The two types of lung cancer include:
  • Small-cell lung cancer: Small cell lung cancer occurs in heavy smokers.
  • Non-small cell lung cancer: Non-small cell lung cancer is an umbrella term for several types of lung cancers that behave in a similar way. Non-small cell lung cancers include squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma.
 
Symptoms:
Lung cancer typically doesn't cause symptoms in its earliest stages. The symptoms of lung cancer typically occur only when the disease is advanced. Symptoms of lung cancer may include:
  • Persistent cough.
  • Coughing up blood.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Chest pain.
  • Wheezing.
  • Hoarseness.
  • Weight loss without known reason.
  • Bone pain.
  • Headache.
Risk factors:
  • Smoking: Your risk of lung cancer increases with the number of cigarettes you smoke each day and the number of years you have smoked. Quitting at any age can significantly lower your risk of developing lung cancer.
  • Exposure to secondhand smoke.
  • Exposure to radon gas.
  • Exposure to carcinogens such as asbestos, arsenic, chromium and nickel.
  • Family history of lung cancer such as a parent and sibling.
Diagnosis:
Lung cancer is diagnosed by:
  • X-ray.
  • CT scan.
  • Sputum exam.
  • Biopsy of lung cells.
Prevention:
  • Quitting smoking.
  • Avoiding secondhand smoke.
  • Testing your home for radon gas.
  • Avoiding exposure to carcinogens at work.
  • Maintaining a diet full of fruits and vegetables.
  • Maintaining a physical activity.
Treatment:
Treatment is based on a number of factors, such as your overall health, the type and stage of your cancer and your diagnostic preferences.
 
Surgery:
During surgery, your surgeon works to remove the cancerous tissues arising from lung cancer and a margin of healthy tissues.
Types of surgery:
  • A triangle-shaped removal of the part that contains cancerous tissues.
  • Removal of the affected pulmonary lobe and cancerous tissues.
  • Removal the entire lung affected with cancer.
Chemotherapy:
Radiation therapy:
 
Targeted drug therapy, including:
  • Afatinib (Gilotrif)
  • Bevacizumab (Avastin)
  • Ceritinib (Zykadia)
  • Crizotinib (Xalkori)
  • Erlotinib (Tarceva)
  • Nivolumab (Opdivo)
  • Ramucirumab (Cyramza)
 
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Last Update 22 October 2015 09:09 AM
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