The developmental projects, carried out by the human in the various economic, social, cultural and political areas, have brought about a lot of changes to and adverse effects on the environment. In response to these harms and environmental risks, the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) has been held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. This conference, dubbed the “Earth Summit,” was attended by a large number of the world leaders.
Although there is no consensus on its definition, sustainable development could be defined as the rational management of the available natural resources, in such a manner ensuring economic and social prosperity, as well as meeting the developmental and environmental needs of present and future generations.
Sustainable development is based on two fundamental rights: the right of development, and the right of environment protection; both of which are deemed to be of the basic human rights. The most important elements of sustainable development are:
Sustainable development is meant to achieve, through its mechanisms and agencies, several objectives, including:
Sustainable development indicators contribute to assessing to what extent countries and institutions are capable of realizing the sustainable development objectives. These indicators revolve around the UN recommendations for the 21st Century Agenda, including proper health care for all society members, especially those in the remote, peripheral and rural areas, as well as controlling the endemic and epidemic diseases caused by environmental pollution (life expectancy, maternal and child mortality rates, and primary health care.)