Cancerous Diseases
Cancer…Facts and Guidelines
Introduction:
Cancer is a generic term for a large group of diseases that can affect any part of the body. One defining feature of cancer is the rapid creation of abnormal cells that grow beyond their usual boundaries, and which can then invade adjoining parts of the body and spread to other organs.
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Symptoms:
  1. Fatigue. 
  2. Weight loss for no obvious reason.
  3. Fever and night sweats.
  4. Skin changes; such as redness, swelling, skin color changing to dark, lumps appearing under the skin, or appearance changes in the mole or wart. 
  5. Changes in defecation ways, such as constipation and diarrhea.
  6. Continuous coughing.
  7. Ongoing pain in the body joints and muscles.
  8. Abnormal secretion or bleeding.
  9. Emergence of lumps in the breast.
  10. Lymphadenopathy.
  11. Problems in the urinary system.
  12. Emergence of spots in the mouth.
  13. Changes in the testicle.
 
Causes:
Tumor cells are formed when the nucleic acid of the cell suffers a genetic change, which causes the cell to be divided irregularly and swiftly, leading to the production of deformed cells known as "cancer cells".
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 Causes beyond Genetic Change of Cells:
  • Internal causes (unknown)
  • External causes: such as the exposure to some sorts of radiations or carcinogenic chemicals, and smoking.
 
Risk Factors Causing Cancer:
  • Unhealthy lifestyles or behaviors (such as smoking, drinking alcohol, and exposure to the direct sunlight for long time).
  • Familial history: studies indicate that some cancers are inherited such as breast cancer.
  • Aging
  • Complications caused by some chronic diseases, such as recurrent colitis or gastroenteritis, may increase the possibility of developing cancer.
  • Surrounding environment: Working in places where chemicals are widely used increases the possibility of developing cancer.
 
Diagnosis:
  • Self-examination: It is very important to detect the occurrence of any changes in the human body at early stages. This helps speed up recovery.
  • Clinical examination: The physician examines the patient's body in search of any tumors, color changes, hypertrophy in some body organs, or any other signs of cancer.
  • Laboratory testing, such as Pap smear, blood and urine tests.
  • Radiology and endoscopes, such as the Computed Tomography (CT) scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
  • Biopsy: The physician might take biopsy samples to check the cancer type.
 
Determination of Cancer Stage:
In case the physician successfully diagnoses a patient with cancer, imaging tests and x-rays will be necessary to determine the stage of cancer; in an endeavor to prescribe the proper treatment.

Cancer Stages:
Cancer is usually classified into 4 stages, starting from the first to the fourth, which is the most serious stage
.
 
Treatment:
Cancer treatment varies according to a number of factors; they are:
  • Cancer type 
  • Type, size and location of the cell
  • Cancer stage
  • Patient's health status
  • Response to treatment

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 Treatment Options:
  • Surgical treatment to eliminate tumors as possible.
  • Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells by some certain medications.
  • Radiotherapy by using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells.
  • Biological therapy by helping the immune system to detect and fight cancer cells.
  • Hormone therapy: Some types of cancer feed on the body's hormones (such as breast cancer and prostate cancer). By eliminating such hormones, cancer cells die.

Prevention:
There is no certain way that can be said to protect from cancer. However, there are some factors that reduce the potentiality or seriousness of the disease, such as:

  • Abstention from smoking: There is a close relationship between smoking and cancer, especially lung cancer.
  • Avoidance of direct sunlight, especially the harmful ultraviolet rays, by staying in the shade, wearing protective clothes and using protective creams.
  • Proper nutrition by choosing the foods that are rich in fruits and vegetables, as well as whole grains (e.g. corn, brown rice and crushed wheat).
  • Regular exercise: Daily exercise (for 30 minutes) helps reduce the potentiality of developing cancer.
  • Optimal weight: Studies show that there is a close relationship between cancer and obesity. Optimal weight can be attained by regular exercise and proper nutrition.
  • Undergoing regular medical examination for cancer early detection.
  • Immunization: There are a number of viruses causing cancer, such as Hepatitis (B), which may lead to liver cancer, and the virus that causes cervical cancer. Immunizations will protect you from such viruses, Allah Willing. 

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Last Update 04 February 2015 04:15 PM
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