Otorhinolaryngological Diseases


Paranasal sinuses:
They are the hollow areas within the bones of the face behind the cheeks, jaw, and eyebrows that are connected to the nostrils. These sinuses are lined with mucous membranes similar to those inside the nose.

Sinusitis is swelling and inflammation of the lining of the sinuses and nose and is usually caused by an infection. It is common and usually gets better on its own. Some medications can be prescribed by a doctor when needed.

Acute sinusitis: It is an infection that lasts for less than 4 weeks.
Subacute sinusitis: It is the inflammation that lasts from 4 weeks to 12 weeks.
Chronic sinusitis: It is the inflammation that lasts for more than 12 weeks.

The sinuses produce mucus (liquid) to remove germs suspended in the inhaled air and get rid of them through the nose, but in case of swelling and inflammation of the sinuses, these fluids are retained inside the sinuses, causing pain and discomfort. Viral infection associated with the common cold is one of the most common causes that lead to acute sinusitis (viral sinusitis).
Bacteria can also cause sinusitis, but it often occurs as a complication of a viral infection.

Risk factors:

  • Previous colds
  • Seasonal allergies
  • Smoking and exposure to passive smoke.
  • Structural problems within the sinuses (e.g., growths on the lining of the nose or sinuses).
  • Weakened immune system or taking medications that weaken the immune system.


  • Runny nose with thick yellow or green mucus.
  • Nasal congestion and stuffiness.
  • Pain or pressure in the facial bones (sinus sites)
  • Temporary loss of sense of smell.
  • Feeling of pressure and fullness inside the ear.
  • A high temperature of more than 38 degrees in the case of acute inflammation.
  • headache
  • Mucus coming down the throat
  • Sore throat
  • Cough
  • Bad breath

Signs of sinusitis in young children may also include irritability, difficulty feeding and breathing through the mouth.

When to see a doctor:

  • When you notice severe symptoms (e.g.: severe headache or facial pain).
  • Symptoms that get worse after improvement.
  • Symptoms persist for more than 10 days without improvement.
  • High body temperature more than 3-4 days.
  • Persistent sinusitis and unresponsiveness to medication.

Treatment of sinusitis aims primarily to reduce symptoms of discomfort and congestion, as antibiotics are not necessary, as sinus infections improve on their own without the use of antibiotics, but in some cases the patient may need antibiotics after consulting a doctor, as may be prescribed:

  • Steroid nasal sprays or drops; To reduce swelling in the sinuses.
  • Antihistamines if allergies cause symptoms.
  • In some cases, the doctor may recommend surgery to treat chronic sinusitis.

Sinus infections can be prevented by:

  • Always make sure to clean hands.
  • Receive recommended vaccinations (e.g., influenza vaccine).
  • Avoid close contact with people who have colds or other upper respiratory infections.
  • Quit smoking and avoid passive smoking.
  • Use air humidifiers at home

Tips to help relieve sinus pain:

  • Get plenty of rest
  • Drink plenty of fluids.
  • Place a warm compress on the nose and forehead to help relieve sinus pressure.
  • Use decongestant nasal sprays or saline sprays.
  • Inhalation of water vapor from a hot water bowl.
  • Avoid allergens and don't smoke.
  • Ensure that all antibiotics are taken as prescribed and that the prescription is finished

Last Update : 31 August 2023 09:49 AM
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