Gastrointestinal Diseases

Functional Dyspepsia

Functional Dyspepsia:
It is the medical term for a condition that causes upset, pain or discomfort in the stomach or upper abdomen. It is a common condition that may occur at any age, and it is accompanied by a feeling of satiety and fullness before finishing a meal.

Causes of Dyspepsia:
It is usually not clear however the cause may be:

  • Nerve or muscle problems: The process of digesting food involves a series of events that include the nerves and muscles in the digestive tract, if any defect occurs, it leads to emptying the stomach more slowly than usual, which causes nausea and vomiting, and a feeling of fullness quickly when eating or bloating (gaseous distention).
  • Sensitivity to pain: the stomach expands when eating, some people are sensitive to this expansion and feel pain when the stomach expands.
  • Infection: The presence of a bacterial infection in the stomach, "Helicobacter pylori", which can lead to gastritis or ulcers.
  • Psychological and social factors: People with functional dyspepsia often have mood problems (e.g., anxiety or depression).

Risk factors:

  • Taking medications that irritate the stomach.
  • Gastroesophageal reflux
  • Anxiety or depression.
  • Drinking alcohol.


  • Pain in the upper abdomen
  • Epigastric and chest pain
  • Feeling full before finishing the meal.
  • Feeling bloated (fullness with gas) in the abdominal area
  • Sounds coming from the stomach area.
  • Eructation
  • Nausea, vomiting and weight loss.
  • Gases

When to see a doctor:
When symptoms last more than two weeks or if it is accompanied by one of the following symptoms:

  • Difficult, shortness of breathing
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Persistent vomiting
  • Vomiting blood
  • Stool color changes to black or blood in the stool
  • Pain in the chest, jaw, neck, or arm
  • Sudden weight loss

Although dyspepsia does not usually have serious complications, it can affect the quality of life by feeling pain and discomfort, when dyspepsia occurs due to a specific condition, it can have serious complications.

The doctor begins with the patient’s medical history and in-depth physical examination. This examination may be sufficient if the dyspepsia is mild, or the doctor may perform several tests or one of the following tests:

  • CBC and urine analysis
  • X-ray or ultrasound
  • Upper endoscopy
  • Infection test (Helicobacter pylori)

Treatment varies according to the case, but there are tips for to relieve and avoid dyspepsia:

  • Reducing caffeine (eg: coffee and tea).
  • Reducing weight if you are obese.
  • Avoid eating 3-4 hours before bedtime.
  • Reducing hot spices and foods that contain fat.
  • Smoking cessation
  • Avoid exercising immediately after eating.
  • Eat small meals and Chewing food well.
  • Reducing stress through relaxation and stress reduction techniques
  • Drink fluids after a meal

Last Update : 23 August 2023 02:56 PM
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