Communicable Diseases
Malaria
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by plasmodium parasites, exclusively transmitted through anopheles mosquitoes.
 
The plasmodium affects the human red blood cells, and damages them over the time.
 
Incubation Period:
The incubation period ranges between 7 to 30 days.
 
Transmission:
The parasites are spread to people through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes, called "malaria vectors", which bite mainly between dusk and dawn.
 
malaria2.jpg
 
 Other reasons for getting affected by malaria:
Because the malaria parasite is found in red blood cells, malaria transmission may also occur through contact with infected blood. This can occur in the following cases:
  • From a mother to her fetus
  • A blood transfusion
  • The shared use of needles or syringes that are contaminated with blood
Symptoms:
Symptoms begin to appear within weeks from the date of the bite. The period may extend to one month. Symptoms may include the following:

 

  • High body temperature and shiver
  • Sweating
  • Headache
  • Nausea and Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
Diagnosis:
  • Early diagnosis and treatment of malaria reduces disease and prevents deaths. It also contributes to reducing malaria transmission.
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that all cases of suspected malaria be confirmed using parasite-based diagnostic testing (either microscopy or rapid diagnostic test) before administering treatment.
  • Results of parasitological confirmation can be available in 15 minutes or less.
  • Treatment solely on the basis of symptoms should only be considered when a parasitological diagnosis is not possible.
Treatment:

There a group of drugs used for treating the malaria and taken according to the type of the parasite and the place of the incidence in the world. Also, some of these drugs have encountered resistance by the parasites and are not effective.

Group of drugs treatment the malaria:
  •  Chloroquine
  • Quinine sulfate
  • Hydroxychloroquine
  • Mefloquine
  • Atovaquone+proguanil
Prevention:
Infection with this disease can be prevented by:
  • Fighting the mosquitoes
  • Taking the available precautions for protection against the mosquito stings such as wearing long-sleeved clothing, covering the legs in the places where the insects are rampant, and using the insect repellent cream.
  • Using nets at doors and windows to prevent the entrance of insects.
  • Using mosquito nets when sleeping outdoors.
  • Avoiding travelling to the places where malaria is rife as much as possible
  • Taking the prescribed preventive dose one week or two weeks before and during travelling to an affected country and after going back home for 4 weeks.
  • Filling ponds and eliminating the places which are regarded proper environments of the reproduction of mosquitoes; thus maintaining your health and reducing the malaria risk.
Complications:
In most malaria cases, one or more of the following complications occur:

 

  • Trouble breathing (ranging from mild to severe cases) owing to the accumulated water in the lungs.
  • Liver failure, renal failure, or splenomegaly.
  • Anemia.
  • Cerebral malaria: Affected blood cells might block the brain's minute blood vessels, causing to brain tumors.
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Last Update 23 April 2015 02:12 PM
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