Diabetes-related Diseases

Type II diabetes

Type II diabetes:
It is a common condition that leads to a very high level of (glucose) in the blood. It is also a lifelong condition that can affect daily life. The patient may need to change diet, take medications, and have regular check-ups.

It is a hormone that helps the body use glucose (sugar) for energy. Insulin allows glucose to enter cells in the body when it is needed and stores excess glucose for later use. In the absence of insulin, blood glucose (sugar) levels become very high, and over time it causes damage to the body.

It occurs because cells do not respond  normally to insulin, and this is called insulin resistance, as the  pancreas produces more insulin to try to respond to cells, eventually the pancreas cannot keep up with growth, and blood glucose rises, paving the way for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes, high  blood  glucose damages the body and can cause other  serious health problems (such as heart disease, vision loss, and kidney disease).

Risk factors:

  • Growing old.
  • Pre-diabetes.
  • Family history.
  • Being overweight or obese.
  • Lack of physical activity.
  • Previously had diabetes during pregnancy.

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often take several years to appear, but some people don't notice any symptoms at all, which may include:

  • Urinating more than usual, especially at night
  • Feeling thirsty all the time
  • Feeling very tired
  • Lose weight without trying effort.
  • Wounds take longer time to heal.
  • Blurred vision

When to see a doctor:
Because symptoms are difficult to identify, it is important to know the risk factors of type 2 diabetes, to make sure to see a doctor when any symptoms are present.

Diabetes diagnosis depends on the symptoms and various blood tests to determine blood glucose. If the patient has symptoms indicating diabetes, one of the blood tests is performed to determine blood glucose and only one test is positive along with the symptoms for diagnosis. In the absence of symptoms, a blood glucose test is performed twice on two separate days to prove the infection, including a (A1C), (FBG), (OGTT), and Random Blood Glucose Tests.

A patient is diagnosed with diabetes if one of his readings along with the symptoms:

  • Glycated Hemoglobin: 6.5 or more.
  • FBG: 126 mg / dL or more.
  • OGTT: test: 200 mg / dL or more.

Treatment to manage diabetes may be through healthy eating and physical activity, or the doctor may prescribe insulin, other injectable medications, or oral diabetes medications to manage blood sugar. In addition, the patient needs to be checked regularly, examinations number and blood glucose levels that should be targeted with the attending physician are determined, as keeping blood glucose levels in the target range prevent or delay diabetes-related complications.

Type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed by making lifestyle changes, as research shows that the risk of developing type 2 diabetes can be reduced by 58% via:

  • Loss of 7% of body weight.
  • Exercising moderately gentle exercise (e.g. brisk walking) 30 minutes a day, five days a week

Guidance for people with type 2 diabetes:

  • Keeping your blood pressure and cholesterol close to your doctor's goals and have the necessary screening tests.
  • Testing your blood glucose and keeping a record of the results.
  • Checking your blood glucose regularly, where maintaining blood glucose levels as close to the target as possible to prevent or delay diabetes-related complications.
  • Developing a plan for healthy eating and activity.
  • Reducing stress and tension as regular physical activity and getting enough sleep and relaxation exercises can help to reduce.
  • Making regular appointments with your healthcare team to make sure you are on the right track with your treatment plan.
  • Recognizing high or low blood glucose signs and how to deal with it.
  • Monitoring feet, skin, and eyes to detect problems early.

Type 2 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents:
High rates of obesity have been observed in children as well as rates of type 2 diabetes among young people, so parents can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes by developing a plan for the whole family:

  • Drinking more water and less sugary drinks
  • Eating more fruit and vegetables
  • Making Favorite Foods Healthier
  • Making physical activity more enjoyable
  • Getting children involved in preparing healthy meals.
  • Eating slowly - it takes at least 20 minutes to start feeling full.
  • Eating only at the dinner table, not in front of the TV or computer.
  • If a child is overweight, a weight loss diet should not be used without talking to a doctor.
  • Shopping on a full stomach so you're not tempted to buy unhealthy food.
  • Teaching children to read food labels to understand healthier foods.
  • Eating meals together as a family as much as you can.
  • The child gets 60 minutes of physical activity per day, in several 10- or 15-minute sessions or all at once.
  • Encouraging children to join a sports team.
  • Time watching screen is limited to two hours per day.
  • Planning active outings (e.g., going out for a walk or cycling).

Healthy changes become easier habits when everyone is doing it together.

Last Update : 28 August 2023 03:28 PM
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