Mental Illness/ Psychological Disorders

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar Disorder:
It is a disorder of the brain that causes changes in a person's mood, energy, and ability to
function. It is a mental health condition that affects mood. Mood swings from extremely high (mania) to extremely low (depression) and the patient also goes through some periods of
normal mood.

The exact cause is still unknown, but it is believed that there are some factors that form a complex mixture of physical, environmental, and social factors that can lead to the disor-der, including:

  • Controlled brain levels of neurotransmitters, which are chemicals responsible for
  • controlling brain functions (such as: noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine).
  • Genetics: Bipolar disorder is thought to be linked to genetics.
  • Stressful conditions or situations often trigger symptoms of bipolar disorder.
  • severe psychological stress.
  • Severe problems in daily life (e.g., money, work, or relationship problems).
  • Life-affecting events (e.g., death of a loved one).
  • Sleep disorders.

Risk factors:

  • Genetics: Bipolar disorder can run in families, with 80%-90% of individuals with bipolar disorder having a close relative with either depression or bipolar disorder.
  • Environmental factors.
  • Severe stress, sleep disturbance, drugs and alcohol may trigger seizures in patients at risk.

A patient with bipolar disorder goes through bouts of depression and bouts of mania, and he may sometimes go through periods of normal mood. A person with bipolar disorder also suffers from symptoms of depression and mania together, a “mixed state,” for example, hyperactivity with a depressed mood.

During the depressive, phase symptoms may include:

  • Feeling sad, hopeless, or irritable most of the time.
  • Lack of energy and difficulty concentrating and remembering things.
  • Feeling empty and losing interest in daily activities.
  • Feelings of guilt and despair.
  • Feeling pessimistic about everything.
  • lack of self confidence
  • Feeling hallucinated and confused or irrational thinking.
  • Anorexia.
  • Difficulty sleeping.
  • Early waking up.
  • Suicidal thoughts.

During the manic phase, symptoms may include:

  • Feeling happy.
  • Talk too fast.
  • Feeling full of energy.
  • Feeling of self-importance.
  • Feeling full of great innovative ideas and important plans.
  • Hallucinations and disturbed or irrational thinking.
  • Not feeling the need to sleep and eat.

When to see a doctor:

  • When feeling thoughts of death or suicide.
  • When any symptoms of depression or mania appear.
  • If you have been diagnosed with bipolar disorder and symptoms return or new symp-toms appear.

Stopping or taking the medication in the wrong way may lead to the return of symptoms and lead to the following complications:

  • Suicidal thoughts and behaviors.
  • Take drugs.
  • Murders.

The diagnosis is made based on the symptoms of the disease, the patient's medical history,
experiences, and family history, and may require some tests (such as checking for thyroid

Treatment of bipolar disorder aims to reduce the severity and number of episodes of depres-sion and mania to provide a normal life for the sufferer as much as possible, and if the person is not treated, the manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder can continue for a period of 3 to 6 months.
It may require one or more types of treatment methods, which include:

  • Medicines to prevent episodes of mania and depression - these are known as mood
  • stabilizers.
  • Medicines to treat the main symptoms of depression and mania when they occur.
  • Identifying the causes and signs of a bout of depression or mania.
  • Psychological treatment that helps to deal with depression and advice on how to
  •  improve relationships with others.
  • Lifestyle advice, e.g., getting regular exercise, planning activities you enjoy and that give you a sense of achievement, improving your diet and getting more sleep.

Last Update : 31 August 2023 12:32 PM
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