Diabetes-related Diseases

Type 1 diabetes
​Type 1 diabetes:
It is a chronic medical condition that occurs when the pancreas produces too little or no insulin Permanently, it usually begins in childhood or young adulthood, but it can develop at any age, Type 1 diabetes requires regular blood glucose levels control and insulin treatment, Lifestyle modification along with medication can also control blood glucose levels and reduces the risk of disease-related complications.

Where a hormone that helps the body to use glucose (Sugar) to get energy, where insulin allows glucose to enter the body's cells when it is needed, Excess glucose is stored for later use, when there is no Insulin, blood glucose (sugar) levels become too high, and over time It causes harm to the body.

Type 1 diabetes typically occurs when an immune response occurs from the body. The immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells (beta cells) in the pancreas. This process occurs over several months or years. Diabetes may be asymptomatic because high blood glucose and associated symptoms (e.g.: Frequent urination and thirst) do not usually occur until more than 90% of the cells that make insulin are destroyed.
Type 1 diabetes can develop for those with a family history of this type, but it also develops for those who don't, in both cases people with diabetes have one or more genes that make them susceptible to the disease, environmental factors, exposure to certain viruses may trigger an autoimmune response.

Most people with type 1 diabetes experience symptoms of high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia). include:
  • Extreme thirst.
  • Feeling fatigued.
  • Needing to urinate frequently.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Feeling hungry.
  • Weight loss.
  • Frequent fungal infection or urinary tract infections.
  • Slowly healing wounds.
Diabetes increases the risk of many health problems, but with the right treatment and lifestyle changes many people with diabetes can prevent or delay complications, among these complications:
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA): is a medical emergency that must be treated immediately, it occurs in patients with diabetes because of severe insulin shortage that breaks down the body's fat for energy resulting in a build-up of ketones in the body. It can be life threatening if undiagnosed and treated quickly. Its symptoms include the same as previous symptoms as:
  1. Nausea and vomiting.
  2. Abdominal pain.
  3. Deep and fast breathing and it has a fruity scent.
  4. Feeling of lethargy and difficulty paying attention.
Loss of consciousness and sometimes up to coma.
Diabetic ketoacidosis often occurs in people with type 1 diabetes, but it can sometimes affect people with type 2 diabetes.
  • Neuropathy: nerve damage caused by diabetes (diabetic neuropathy) This can be prevented by maintaining blood glucose levels in the normal range. There are several types of neuropathies, the most common of which is peripheral neuropathy. It affects the nerves in the hands, feet, legs, and arms, causing tingling, pain and weakness in the feet and hands, Autonomic neuropathy affects the autonomic nerves that control the bladder, intestinal tract, and reproductive organs, among other organs.
  • Frequent skin infections, such as fungal or bacterial infections.
  • Eye problems such as Glucoma, Cataract, and Retinopathy.
  • Nephropathy and failure of its functions.
  • cardiovascular diseases occur.
  • Hypertension (High blood pressure).
  • Stroke (brain attack).
Diabetes diagnosis depends on symptoms and different blood tests to determine the level of glucose in the blood, if the patient has symptoms indicating diabetes, then a blood test is performed to determine the level of glucose in the blood, and only one positive test along with the diagnosis symptoms, but in the absence of symptoms, a test is done twice in two separate days to prove infection, one of these tests is (A1C) (FBG) (OGTT) and Random blood glucose test. A patient is diagnosed with diabetes if one of his readings coupled with symptoms:
  • ​Glycated hemoglobin:6.5 or more.
  • (FBG) test:126 mg/dL or higher.
  • (OGTT) test:200 mg/dL or higher.
It is important to diagnose diabetes as soon as possible since if left untreated it is a life-threatening condition, diabetes cannot be cured definitively, but the treatment aims to keep blood glucose levels as normal as possible and control symptoms; To prevent health problems and complications, since the body cannot produce insulin, the patient will need to regularly inject insulin to maintain normal glucose levels which are prescribed by the doctor according to the amount of food eaten.

Living with type 1 diabetes:
When developing type 1 diabetes, you must take great care of your health and adopt healthy lifestyle habits to reduce the incidence of complications, as habits include:
  • Making healthy food choices
  • Doing physical activity regularly.
  • Controlling blood pressure.
  • Controlling Ratio Blood cholesterol.
  • Regular appointments with the health-care team; To make sure that the patient is on track with his or her treatment plan and get help on new ideas and strategies if necessary.
  • Maintaining periodic examinations specified for early examination before complications occur.
Regular check-ups for diabetics:
Diabetics should keep regular check-up appointments to avoid complications over time.
  • Glycated Hemoglobin Test (A1C): A blood test that measures the average level of blood sugar over the past two to three months, where a blood test to measure the glycated hemoglobin (A1C) must be done every six months if the last level of A1C is in the target range, and every three months if the last levels of A1C are not in the target range.
  • Albumin to Creatinine Ratio (ACR): urinalysis to verify the amount of albumin (a type of protein, an increase in its percentage it is a sign of kidney damage) in the urine. This test should be done once every 5 years for patients with type 1 diabetes.
  • Blood Pressure Measurement: It is measured at each patient’s visit to the primary care center.
  • Having an eye examination: It is performed by an ophthalmologist in order to identify any eye problem before it occurs, as it is done once every 5 years for patients with type 1 diabetes, or once a year if the patient has any other eye problems.
  • Kidney Function: A blood analysis measures kidney function and is performed once every 5 years for patients with type 1 diabetes. If there is a problem with kidney function, it is performed twice annually.

Last Update : 28 August 2023 12:05 PM
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