Eye Diseases


Glaucoma is a group of eye disorders that lead to progressive damage to the optic nerve (a nerve located in the back of the eye connected to the brain responsible for sending light signals to the brain so that vision occurs) that occurs when fluid in the eye (ciliary fluid) is not properly drained, which increases pressure inside the eye and optic nerve and which can cause vision loss if not detected and treated early. It can affect people of all ages including infants, but is most common in adults.

Types of glaucoma:

  • Open-angle: This type is the most common and occurs gradually, as the eye does not drain the inside fluid as it should, and as a result, eye pressure increases and optic nerve damage begins, usually in both eyes, and its prevalence rate increases with age. This type is painless and does not cause any changes in vision at first. People with high blood pressure are also at higher risk for this type.
  • Closed-angle: It is a medical emergency case in this type of glaucoma, where the outer edge of the iris (the colored part of the eye) prevents fluid to drain from the front of the eye, leading to a buildup of fluid, and cause a sudden increase in intraocular pressure, and if not treated, it can cause blindness within a few days.
  • Secondary glaucoma: caused by an eye problem such as uveitis (the colored middle layer of the eye), eye injuries, operations, or certain medications.
  • Congenital glaucoma: affects newborns or children due to a congenital defect in the development of the corner of the eye as a result of poor eye development. This means that the eye fluid cannot flow normally. Children with congenital glaucoma have cloudy eyes, sensitive to light, and an increase in eye tears, and eyes may be larger than normal.

The eye secretes a watery fluid that maintains eye moisture and then drains this fluid through channels. When the balance between the amount of secreted fluid and the ability of the channels to drain the fluid is imbalanced, the fluid accumulates inside the eye, causing blockage and pressure on the optic nerve tissues.

Risk factors:

  • Getting older than 40 years old.
  • Having a family history of glaucoma.
  • Vision problems.
  • Eye injuries.
  • Certain types of eye surgery.
  • The presence of some chronic diseases (such as: diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and sickle cell anemia).
  • The presence of eye problems (such as: thin cornea, sensitivity of the optic nerve, retinal detachment, eye tumors and eye infections).
  • Long-term use of certain medications (such as corticosteroids).

In open-angle glaucoma, there are no clear warning signs or symptoms in the early stages, but as the disease progresses, dark spots may appear in the side vision (the part of vision near the nose). As for closed-angle glaucoma, the symptoms are sudden and severe:

  • Blurred vision (sudden blurry vision).
  • Strong headache.
  • Vomiting and nausea.
  • Severe pain in the eye.
  • Eye redness.
  • Seeing halos around light (rainbows).

When to see a doctor:
When there are symptoms such as severe headaches, eye pain, and blurred vision, an annual eye examination is recommended.

Permanent loss of vision (blindness).

Treatment depends on the type of glaucoma, but the main treatments are:

  • Eye drops to reduce pressure in the eye.
  • Laser treatment to open blocked ducts or reduce fluid production in the eye.
  • Surgery to improve fluid drainage from the eye.


  • Perform regular eye exams for those with risk factors and at the discretion of the ophthalmologist.
  • Wear glasses to protect the eyes from serious injuries that accompany some work.
  • Control of medical conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure.
  • Maintaining a healthy weight, controlling blood pressure, being physically active, and avoiding smoking can help prevent vision loss from glaucoma. These healthy behaviors will also help prevent type 2 diabetes and other chronic conditions.

Last Update : 03 September 2023 12:26 PM
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