Cardiovascular Diseases

Blood Clots "Thrombosis"

Blood clotting:
It is an important process that prevents bleeding, as when a blood vessel is injured, platelets (a type of blood cell) and proteins in the plasma (the liquid part of the blood) work together to stop the bleeding by forming a clot over the wound. Usually, the body naturally dissolves the blood clot after it heals. Injury, but sometimes, clots form inside vessels without obvious injury or do not dissolve normally.

Blood clotting disorders (blood clots):
These are problems with the body's ability to control how blood clots. They can be inherited or acquired (the condition develops as a result of a disease or other injury). Blood clots can also cause many health problems.

  • Inherited blood clotting disorder: It occurs due to transmission of the disease gene from parents to the person or due to changes in certain genes that can make the blood more susceptible to formation of clots, such as sticky platelet syndrome and mutations of blood clotting factors (factor V).
  • Acquired blood clotting disorder: means that the person was not born with the disease, but the disease developed due to a health condition or another disease.
In a normal body condition, when a blood vessel is injured, damaged cells in the vessel wall send chemical signals that cause clots to slow or stop the bleeding. The following can disrupt this process:
  • Changes in gene structures (mutations) before birth.
  • A medical condition (such as obesity) or an autoimmune disorder (such as lupus).
  • Immobility for long periods (such as after surgery).
  • Some medications to treat cancer or bleeding disorders.
  • Vitamin B6, B12, or folic acid deficiency
  • Infection (such as: HIV, the virus that causes Corona Covid-19).
Risk factors:
  • Advanced age, especially from 65 years and over.
  • Previous blood clot or family history.
  • Lack of movement (such as: hospitalization, recovery from injury, or paralysis)
  • Medical conditions (such as: cancer, heart and lung diseases).
  • Weight gain and obesity.
  • Smoking.
  • Taking some medications (such as: hormonal contraceptives, the contraceptive patch, or chemotherapy drugs for cancer).
  • After major surgery (especially in the abdomen, pelvis, hip or legs).
  • Pregnancy.
  • The presence of an intravenous catheter.
  • Inflammatory conditions (such as Crohn's disease or rheumatoid arthritis).
Symptoms of blood clots depend on where they are formed in the body:
  • In deep veins: A clot limits blood flow in the veins of the legs, thigh, or pelvis, and symptoms include swelling, pain, and redness of the skin in the affected area of the body.
  • Pulmonary embolism: A clot limits blood flow to the lungs and symptoms include difficulty breathing, chest pain, irregular heartbeat, and coughing up blood.
  • It is rare for blood clots to form in the arteries, and when this happens they can lead to a heart attack or stroke.
When to see a doctor:
When experiencing symptoms of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism.

Blood clotting is treated with medications, but because blood clots can be dangerous, they may need emergency treatment. Depending on the size and location of the clot, the patient may need emergency treatment or routine treatment.
  • Emergency treatment: Blood clots can lead to serious problems (such as: stroke, heart attack, kidney failure, deep vein thrombosis, or pulmonary embolism). Emergency treatment in these stages includes medications called anticoagulants, which work to break up the clots and dissolve them in the blood. quickly.
  • Routine treatment: When a person has previously had blood clots or is diagnosed with a blood clotting disorder, the doctor may prescribe blood-thinning medications taken orally (such as: warfarin or aspirin) or by injection (such as: heparin); To prevent clots from forming.
Medications are used to prevent and treat deep vein thrombosis, and the use of compression stockings is sometimes recommended to prevent deep vein thrombosis and relieve pain and swelling. In severe cases, the clot may need to be surgically removed.

  • Adopt healthy lifestyle changes.
  • Choose healthy foods (such as: fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) as part of a heart-healthy eating plan.
  • It is important to perform regular checkups and look for symptoms of blood clots.
  • Practice physical activity to help blood circulation flow and prevent the formation of blood clots.
  • Quit Smoking.
  • Treat conditions that can lead to a blood clotting disorder, such as diabetes or cardiovascular disease.
  • Drink plenty of water to avoid dehydration.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Control stress and tension; To reduce the chance of developing risk factors for blood clots (such as high blood pressure).
  • Avoid medications that contain estrogen (such as: hormone replacement medications for menopause, and birth control pills that contain estrogen).
  • Follow the doctor’s instructions about wearing socks that improve blood flow or taking medications to reduce the risk of clots (anticoagulants).
  • When sitting for long periods of time for more than four hours, you should walk around every one to two hours and exercise your legs while sitting.
Last Update : 25 September 2023 01:55 PM
Reading times :