Other Diseases
Obesity and Overweight
Obesity: Is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health.
 
Body mass index (BMI): Is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify overweight and obesity in adults. It is defined as a person's weight in kilograms divided by the square of his height in meters (kg/m2).
 
 BMI
Status​
Less than 18.5​ Less than normal weight ​
18.5 - 24.9​
Normal weight ​
25 – 29.9​ Over weight​
30 – 34.9
Obesity (1st category)​
35 – 39.9​ Obesity (2nd category)​
40 and higher​ Sever obesity (3rd category) ​
       
Main Causes of Obesity:
  • Genetics.
  • Individual/Family-food style.
  • Laziness and lack of physical activity.
  • Diseases (e.g. Cushing's syndrome and Prader Willi syndrome, and some medical problems may lead to a lack of movement, such as arthritis which could cause weight gain).
  • Some drugs may lead to weight gain.
  • Aging.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Stop smoking.
  • Lack of sleep: Not getting enough sleep, or oversleeping which could cause changes in hormones that increase appetite. 
 
Complications:
  • High triglycerides.
  • Diabetes (Type 2).
  • Hypertension.
  • Metabolic syndrome (i.e. a combination of high blood sugar, high blood pressure, high triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol)
  • Cardiac diseases.
  • Stroke.
  • Cancer: Including cancer of the uterus, cervix, endometrium, ovaries, breast, colon, rectum, esophagus, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, kidney and prostate.
  • Breathing disorders.
  • Gallbladder disease.
  • Gynecological problems, such as infertility and irregular periods.
  •  Fatty liver.
 
Diagnosis:
  • Medical history.
  • A preliminary diagnosis or general physical exam: Measuring weight, height, blood pressure, heart rate and temperature.
  • Body Mass Index (BMI).
  • Measuring waist circumference: Fat stored around waist) sometimes called visceral fat or abdominal fat (may further increase the risk of some diseases (e.g. diabetes and cardiac diseases), if women are with a waist measurement (circumference) of more than 35 inches (80 cm) and men with a waist measurement of more than 40 inches (102 cm).
  • Blood tests: Tests depend on health status, risk factors or any current symptoms which person may have. These tests may include a cholesterol test, liver function tests, a fasting glucose, a thyroid test, etc. The treating physician may also recommend certain tests for heart, such as an electrocardiogram.
 
Treatment:
The goal of obesity treatment is to reach and maintain a healthy weight; in an endeavor to reduce the risk of serious health problems and promote lifestyles among obese. Therefore, the obese may need help of a team of health professionals (e.g. a dietitian or a doctor) to understand and make changes in his/her habits, such as physical activity and healthy eating, as well as identifying healthy weight and how to reach it, and the first goal may be losing from 5 – 10% of weight during 6 months.
 
The obese may feel improvement in his/her health, if s/he loses a small amount of weight about 5 – 15% of his/her total weight (i.e. if s/he weighs 91 kg, to be considered obese based on BMI standards, s/he would need to lose only about 4.5 to 13.6 kg, to feel health improvement.
 
Special Methods of Treatment:
There are many methods to treat obesity and achieve a healthy weight.  The proper treatment methods depend on the level of obesity, the overall health and willingness of the obese to participate in weight-loss plan, as well as maintaining the proper and right method to make changes, the matter which can be committed forever, in order to maintain the appropriate weight. These treatment methods include:
  • Dietary changes
  • Exercise and physical activity
  • Behavior change
  • Weight-loss medications (prescribed by a physician)
  • Weight-loss surgery
Prevention:
Whether you're at risk of becoming obese, currently overweight or at a healthy weight, you can take some steps to prevent unhealthy weight gain and its related health problems. Not surprisingly, the steps to prevent weight gain are the same as those ones to lose it; daily exercise, a healthy diet, and a long-term commitment to watch what you eat and drink. These steps include:
  • Exercise regularly: According to the American College of Sports Medicine, you need to get 150 to 250 minutes of moderate-intensity activity a week to prevent weight gain. Moderately intense physical activities include fast walking and swimming.
  • Eat healthy food and snacks: By focusing on low-calorie foods, such as fruits and vegetables and avoiding saturated fat and sweets. Just be sure to choose foods that promote a healthy weight and good health. 
  • Know and avoid the food traps that cause you to eat a lot: Try to keep a notebook and write down what you eat, how much you eat, when you eat, how you're feeling and how hungry you are. After a while, you should observe patterns emerging to you. You can plan ahead and develop strategies for handling these types of situations and stay in control of your eating behaviors.
  • Monitor your weight regularly: People who weigh themselves at least once a week are more successful in keeping off excess pounds. Monitoring your weight can tell you whether your efforts are working and can help you detect small weight gains before they become big problems.
 
 
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Last Update 19 January 2016 03:03 PM
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