First Aid

Hypersensitivity (Anaphylaxis)

Definition of allergy:
It is a reaction of the immune system of a person who is allergic to certain substances (such as vaccine, mites, fungi, some foods, etc.). The immune system usually fights harmful substances that enter the body, but in the case of allergies, it fights some substances as if they are harmful by producing antibodies that cause allergy symptoms. 

Definition of anaphylactic shock (hypersensitivity):
It is a severe and dangerous allergic reaction that can impede breathing, lead to very low blood pressure and affect the heart rate, and may appear within minutes of exposure to the allergen. The most common cause of food allergy is to nuts and peanuts.

Allergic triggers:
    • Some foods (e.g.: eggs, nuts, fish, some fruits, etc.).
    • Insect bites (e.g.: bees, etc.).
    • Allergy to rubber (latex), which is used in the manufacture of: rubber gloves, balloons, pencil erasers, rubber balls, some tubes and stoppers used in laboratories, and others.
    • Some medications, such as antibiotics and aspirin.
    • Some materials used in medical tests, such as dyes used in making some x-rays.
Warning emergency signs:
  • Swelling of the lips, tongue, face and eyes.
  • Increase of heart beatings
  • Swelling and tightness in the throat.
  • Difficulty breathing and speaking.
  • Skin rash associated with vomiting or abdominal pain.
  • Dizziness, fainting or loss of consciousness.​​​​​
Anaphylaxis is an emergency condition and it can be very dangerous. Therefore, when someone has symptoms of anaphylaxis, the following steps should be taken:
  • He should be injected with an adrenaline (epinephrine), knowing first how to use it.
  • Contact the Red Crescent to transfer him to the nearest emergency room.
  • Remove the allergen when possible (e.g.: the remains of the insect that caused the sting if it is still attached to the skin).
  • Make the person lie on his back and raise his feet up, unless he suffers from difficulty breathing and needs to sit down to help him breathe, but if the injured person is pregnant, then she lies on her left side.
Adrenaline Injection:
It is an injection pre-filled with adrenaline (epinephrine), intended for the immediate treatment of an emergency severe allergic reaction in the body (anaphylaxis) in patients at risk. Each syringe contains one dose (one time) of epinephrine. Dispose it.

Cases that require adrenaline injection:
Patients with anaphylaxis due to:
    • Stinging insects (e.g.: bees, wasps, fire ants).
    • Some foods.
    • Diagnostic test materials (e.g.: X-ray dye) and other allergens.
    • Unexplained anaphylaxis.
    • Excessive allergy caused by exercise.​
Precautions before taking the injection:
The doctor should be informed in the following medical conditions:
  • If the patient has an allergy to the injection or any of its components.
  • Having one of the following health problems: heart problems or high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, thyroid problems, high pressure in the eye (glaucoma), asthma, depression, Parkinson's, kidney or prostate disease.
General Instructions:
    • It is very important to know the allergens and stay away from them.
    • Make sure to have the injection with you when you go anywhere.
    • Telling parents and others about the injection, and how to use it when needed.
    • The injection is to be received in the middle of the outer thigh.
    • It is not injected into a vein, hands or feet, and when accidentally received in any other part of the body, you must go immediately to the nearest emergency room.
    • Ensure that the child's legs are fixed; To limit movement while receiving the injection.
    • The syringe should be checked periodically, making sure that the solution is not pink, brown, cloudy, or contains particles.
    • The adrenaline injection is light sensitive and should be stored in the outer box provided to protect it from light.
    • Avoid exposing the injection to extreme cold or heat and store it away from direct sunlight.
    • The syringe is for single use and one time.
    • Avoid reusing the remaining liquid in the syringe again.
    • Know allergy symptoms and know what to do in an emergency.
    • Seek help when signs of an allergic reaction appear.
    • Consult a doctor when you notice signs or symptoms of infection (e.g.: persistent redness, warmth and swelling) at the injection site on the body.
    • Symptoms and signs (such as: increased heart beatings, sweating, nausea and vomiting, pallor, dizziness, or headache) may occur, which usually subside and go away with rest.

Last Update : 15 May 2023 12:50 AM
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