Women's Health


Abortion or miscarriage:

A spontaneous abortion is the automatic termination of a pregnancy. Some pregnancies end in miscarriage before a woman knows she is pregnant. A miscarriage is most likely to occur during the first trimester, before 20 weeks of gestation. Miscarriages may occur after 20 weeks of gestation "Late miscarriages ".

Risk factors:
  • Mother age: Older women are more likely to miscarry than younger women and are also at risk of chromosomal abnormalities.
  • Previous miscarriage.
  • Smoking.
  • Alcohol during pregnancy can cause health problems for the baby and increase the risk of miscarriage.
  • Pregnant women who develop a high body temperature (fever) during pregnancy.
  • Injury to the uterus increases the risk of miscarriage (e.g. a blow to the abdomen) or some form of prenatal testing (eg amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling).
  • Exposure to certain infections, medications, radiation, physical stresses, and environmental chemicals.
  • Very high caffeine intake (ex: drinking 10 cups of coffee in 8 to 10 hours).
  • Certain health conditions (such as: diabetes, kidney disease, etc.).

  • There could be many reasons why a miscarriage may occur although sometimes the cause is not identified, and most often it is not caused by the mother. It is believed that most miscarriages are caused by abnormal chromosomes in the fetus.
  • Abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy:
  • If a miscarriage occurs during the first trimester of pregnancy, it is usually caused by problems with the chromosomes of the fetus.
  • Problems with chromosomes: Chromosomes are groups of DNA that contain a detailed set of instructions that control a wide range of factors, from how the body's cells develop to the color of a baby's eyes.
  • Sometimes something can go wrong at the point of conception and the fetus receives too many or not enough chromosomes, and the reasons for this are often not clear, but this means that the fetus will not be able to develop normally, which will lead to a miscarriage.
  • Problems with the placenta: The placenta is the organ that connects the mother’s blood supply to her baby. If there is a problem with the development of the placenta, it may also lead to miscarriage.
An early miscarriage may happen by accident. However, several factors are known to increase the risk:
  • Mother's age
  • Obesity
  • smoking
  • Taking drugs
  • Drinking a lot of caffeine
  • Drinking alcohol

Abortion in the second trimester
Many long-term (chronic) health conditions can increase the risk of experiencing a second-trimester miscarriage, especially if they are not treated or well controlled. These include:
  • Uncontrollable diabetes.
  • Severe high blood pressure.
  • The red lupus.
  • Kidney disease.
  • Hyperactivity or underactivity of the thyroid gland
  • Antiphospholipid syndrome
  • The following infections may also increase miscarriage risks:
  • Rubella.
  • Bacterial vaginosis.
  • AIDS.
  • Chlamydia
  • Gonorrhea
  • Syphilis
  • Malaria
Food poisoning:
Food poisoning from eating contaminated food can increase the risk of miscarriage, for example:
  • - Listeriosis: It is commonly found in unpasteurized dairy products (eg blue cheese).
  • - Toxoplasmosis: which can be detected by eating raw or undercooked infected meat
  • - Salmonella: It is often caused by eating raw or partially cooked eggs
Medications that increase the risk of infection include:
  • Misoprostol: used for conditions (such as: rheumatoid arthritis).
  • Retinoids: used for eczema and acne
  • Methotrexate: used for conditions (such as: rheumatoid arthritis).
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (eg ibuprofen) are used for pain and inflammationTo make sure that this medicine is safe to take during pregnancy, you should consult your doctor or pharmacist before taking it.
Uterine structure:
  • Problems and abnormalities in the uterus can also lead to a second-trimester miscarriage. Possible problems include:
  • Non-cancerous tumors in the uterus (fibroids).
  • An abnormally shaped uterus.

Cervical weakness:
In some cases, the muscles of the cervix are weaker than normal, and it may be caused by a previous injury to this area usually after a surgical procedure, as the weakness of the muscles can cause the cervix to open too early during pregnancy, resulting in a miscarriage.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS):
It is a condition in which the ovaries are larger than normal, and it is caused by hormonal changes in the ovaries. It is known that polycystic ovary syndrome is a major cause of infertility because it can reduce the production of ova, and there is some evidence that indicates that it may also be linked to an increased risk of miscarriage. In women in childbearing period.

  • The most common sign of a miscarriage is vaginal bleeding followed by pain and cramping in the lower abdomen. It can vary from light spotting or brown discharge to heavy bleeding and bright red blood or clots. The bleeding may come and go over several days. However, light vaginal bleeding is relatively common during the first trimester of pregnancy, and it does not necessarily mean that a miscarriage will occur. Other symptoms of a miscarriage include:
  • Mild to severe back and abdominal pain (often worse than menstrual cramps)
  • Weight loss.
  • Pinkish-white mucus coming out of the vagina
  • Liquid or tissue discharge from the vagina.
  • Real contractions (occurring every 5-20 minutes).
  • Tissues with blood clots coming out of the vagina.
  • A sudden decrease in pregnancy symptoms (such as feeling sick and breast pain).

When to see a doctor:
When there is severe bleeding, high body temperature, chills or pain, and in rare cases, miscarriages occur because the pregnancy develops outside the uterus, this is known as ectopic pregnancy. An ectopic pregnancy can be dangerous because there is a risk of internal bleeding, which symptoms may include:
  • Severe and persistent abdominal pain, usually on one side
  • Vaginal bleeding or spotting, usually after the pain starts
  • Pain in the tip of the shoulder
  • Diarrhea and vomiting
  • Feeling very faint and dizzy, possibly fainting

Symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy usually appear between the fifth and fourteenth week of pregnancy.

  • The main goal of treatment during or after a miscarriage is to prevent bleeding and infection. The earlier a woman is in the pregnancy, the more likely it is that the body will expel all the fetal tissue on its own and will not require further medical procedures.
  • If the body does not flush out all the tissue, the most common procedure performed to stop the bleeding and prevent infection is surgery. Medications may be prescribed to help control bleeding after the wound. Bleeding should be closely monitored once she is home.

  • The majority of miscarriages cannot be prevented, but there are some guidelines that can be taken to reduce the risk of miscarriage, including:
  • Refrain from smoking during pregnancy
  • Do not drink alcohol or use drugs during pregnancy
  • Follow a healthy, balanced diet containing at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day
  • Try to avoid certain infections during pregnancy (such as Rubella).
  • Avoid certain foods during pregnancy that may harm the baby.
  • Maintain a healthy weight before pregnancy
Once a woman finds out she is pregnant, the goal is to be as healthy as possible and provide a healthy environment for the baby to develop, so:
  • Avoid smoking or being near smoke
  • Avoid drinking alcohol
  • Consult a physician before taking any over-the-counter medications
  • Reduce or eliminate caffeine
  • Avoid environmental hazards (such as: radiation, infectious diseases, and X-rays).
  • Avoid contact sports or activities that involve a risk of injury.

  • Sometimes the emotional impact is felt immediately after the miscarriage, while in other cases it can take several weeks. Fatigue, loss of appetite, and difficulty sleeping are common after the miscarriage. The mother may also feel feelings of guilt, shock, sadness, and anger. Different women grieve in different ways, some of them find it comforting to talk about their feelings, while others find the topic very painful to discuss.
  • Some women come to terms with their grief a few weeks after the miscarriage and begin planning for their next pregnancy. For other women, the thought of planning another pregnancy is very distressing, at least in the short term. The father of the child may also be affected, as men sometimes find it difficult to express their feelings. Miscarriage can also cause feelings of anxiety or depression, and it can lead to problems in the marital relationship.

Last Update : 30 May 2023 12:57 PM
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