Women's Health
Pregnancy

​​What is pregnancy? 

Pregnancy is the period extending from conception to birth. It lasts for 40 weeks (9 months), starting from the first day of the mother’s last menstrual period.

Calculating the expected date of birth:

​Day
​Month
Year
​Date of last period
​5
​0


    ​​1440​

​ ​
​Add
​18
​9
​Expected date of birth in Hijri
​23
​Dhu al-Qi'dah

​Day
​Month
Year
​Date of last period
1​5
​0


2019

​ ​
​Add
7
March
​Expected date of birth in Gregorian
​22
​December
Pregnancy in months:
​​Pregnancy duration in weeks

​Pregnancy duration in months
​1 - 4
​First month​
​5 - 8
​Second month
​9 - 13
​Third month
​14 - 17
​Fourth month
​18 - 21
​Fifth month
​22 - 26
​Sixth month
​27 - 30
​Seventh month
​31 - 35
​Eighth month
​36 - 40
​Ninth month
Expected changes during pregnancy and how to deal with them:
​Change

​Tips to make it easier

​Vomiting and nausea
  • Avoid smells that trigger nausea.
  • Eat a snack every 2-3 hours.
  • Avoid high-fat foods.
  • Drink ginger to alleviate nausea.
  • Have salty snacks near your bed and eat some when you wake up, before you get out of bed​.
​Frequent urination
​Drink less fluids at night.
Urinate every 2-3 hours to reduce risk of UTIs. 
Do Kegel exercises to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles (10 times a day).



​Breast enlargement
​Wear comfortable bra.
​Lethargy
  • ​Take time to rest during the day.
  • Get enough sleep at night.​

​Increase in vaginal discharge
  • ​Change your underpants daily.
  • Wear cotton underpants. 
  • Keep your vaginal area dry and clean.
  • Avoid vaginal douching.
​Nasal congestion and bleeding.
​Use a humidifier, especially during sleep.
​Heartburn
  • ​Divide your main meals into several small meals during the day.
  • Avoid fried and spicy foods.
  • Avoid lying down right after eating.
  • Drink enough water (30 minutes after having your meal).
  • Avoid citrus juices (E.g. Lemon juice).​
​Swollen feet due to water retention.
  • ​Avoid prolonged sitting or standing.
  • Wearing compression stockings.
  • Avoid clothes that are too tight around your knees and legs.
  • Avoid sitting cross-legged. 
  • Do frequent exercises to enhance blood circulation in the feet.
  • Elevate your legs and feet whenever you can.​
​Hemorrhoids
  • ​Drink plenty of water every day.
  • Eat more foods rich in fiber.
  • Avoid constipation.​
​Constipation
  • ​Eat foods rich in fiber, like fruits and vegetables.
  • Eat natural laxatives like peaches.
  • Take your time in the toilet. ​
​Back pain

  • ​Do exercises that support your back muscles.
  • Rely on your leg muscles instead of your back when carrying objects.
  • Avoid carrying heavy objects. 
  • Lie on the bed to relax your back muscles.​
​Leg cramps
​Use a warm, wet towel.
Have your legs massaged to reduce cramps.​

When to see a doctor?
  • You should see your doctor if you experience:
  • Vaginal bleeding or secretions;
  • Severe or sudden swelling of the face or fingers;
  • Severe non-stop headaches;
  • Persistent severe nausea and vomiting;
  • Dizziness and poor vision;
  • Cramps or severe pain in the lower abdomen;
  • Fever or shivering;
  • Noticeable decrease in fetal movement;
  • Burning sensation when urinating or infrequent urination.

Pregnancy stages:
  • First trimester: 

Periodic follow-up:
Visit your health care provider once every month.

Embryo development:
  • The most important characteristic of the development of the fetus at this time is the beginning of the development of the brain and spinal cord.
  • The heart begins to beat at 5-6 weeks. 
  • The placenta gradually grows. It is completely formed by the end of 12 weeks.
The necessary checks in this trimester:
  1. Neck thickness:
    • The thickness of the neck of the fetus is measured at 11-14 weeks by a doctor or a certified radiologist. If the thickness exceeds the normal range, this may indicate:
    • Chromosomal abnormalities (e.g. Down Syndrome).
    • Heart diseases
    • Genetic or hereditary diseases
    • Fetal abnormalities (e.g. Hiatal hernia)
    • A thick neck may be normal in some fetuses
  2. Mother's blood test:
    • A pregnant woman should be blood tested starting from the 10th week onwards. This helps determine the chromosomes of the fetus. A sample is taken from the mother as the genetic material secreted by the fetus into her blood is examined. The accuracy of this method to determine Down syndrome is 99%.
    • When the fetus appears to have a thick neck, and the mother's blood test result is positive for chromosomal abnormalities, a sample of the placenta or amniotic fluid must be examined.

Second trimester: 
Periodic follow-up:
Visit your health care provider once every month.

Embryo development:
  • A pregnant woman begins to feel her fetus in the second trimester. This usually varies from a woman to another, so if you are pregnant for the first time, you may feel this a bit later, at 18-20 weeks. If you have been pregnant before, you will start feeling your fetus at 13-16 weeks.
  • It is at this stage that the genitals of the fetus begin to form. The sex of the fetus can be determined at 18-20 weeks.

Third trimester:
Doctor visits: 
  • Eighth and ninth months: Visit every 2 weeks.
  • Ninth month: Visit every week.

Embryo development:
  • This period is characterized by the full growth of the fetus. The fetus’s weight during this period increases rapidly.
  • The fetus moves inside the mother's abdomen and turns its head down in preparation for delivery.
  • Lung growth is complete at this point.

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Last Update : 04 November 2020 11:36 AM
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