Women's Health


​​What is pregnancy? 

Pregnancy is the period extending from conception to birth. It lasts for 40 weeks (9 months), starting from the first day of the mother’s last menstrual period.

Calculating the expected date of birth:

​Date of last period


​ ​
​Expected date of birth in Hijri
​Dhu al-Qi'dah

​Date of last period


​ ​
​Expected date of birth in Gregorian
Pregnancy in months:
​​Pregnancy duration in weeks

​Pregnancy duration in months
​1 - 4
​First month​
​5 - 8
​Second month
​9 - 13
​Third month
​14 - 17
​Fourth month
​18 - 21
​Fifth month
​22 - 26
​Sixth month
​27 - 30
​Seventh month
​31 - 35
​Eighth month
​36 - 40
​Ninth month
Expected changes during pregnancy and how to deal with them:

​Tips to make it easier

​Vomiting and nausea
  • Avoid smells that trigger nausea.
  • Eat a snack every 2-3 hours.
  • Avoid high-fat foods.
  • Drink ginger to alleviate nausea.
  • Have salty snacks near your bed and eat some when you wake up, before you get out of bed​.
​Frequent urination
​Drink less fluids at night.
Urinate every 2-3 hours to reduce risk of UTIs. 
Do Kegel exercises to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles (10 times a day).

​Breast enlargement
​Wear comfortable bra.
  • ​Take time to rest during the day.
  • Get enough sleep at night.​

​Increase in vaginal discharge
  • ​Change your underpants daily.
  • Wear cotton underpants. 
  • Keep your vaginal area dry and clean.
  • Avoid vaginal douching.
​Nasal congestion and bleeding.
​Use a humidifier, especially during sleep.
  • ​Divide your main meals into several small meals during the day.
  • Avoid fried and spicy foods.
  • Avoid lying down right after eating.
  • Drink enough water (30 minutes after having your meal).
  • Avoid citrus juices (E.g. Lemon juice).​
​Swollen feet due to water retention.
  • ​Avoid prolonged sitting or standing.
  • Wearing compression stockings.
  • Avoid clothes that are too tight around your knees and legs.
  • Avoid sitting cross-legged. 
  • Do frequent exercises to enhance blood circulation in the feet.
  • Elevate your legs and feet whenever you can.​
  • ​Drink plenty of water every day.
  • Eat more foods rich in fiber.
  • Avoid constipation.​
  • ​Eat foods rich in fiber, like fruits and vegetables.
  • Eat natural laxatives like peaches.
  • Take your time in the toilet. ​
​Back pain

  • ​Do exercises that support your back muscles.
  • Rely on your leg muscles instead of your back when carrying objects.
  • Avoid carrying heavy objects. 
  • Lie on the bed to relax your back muscles.​
​Leg cramps
​Use a warm, wet towel.
Have your legs massaged to reduce cramps.​

When to see a doctor?
  • You should see your doctor if you experience:
  • Vaginal bleeding or secretions;
  • Severe or sudden swelling of the face or fingers;
  • Severe non-stop headaches;
  • Persistent severe nausea and vomiting;
  • Dizziness and poor vision;
  • Cramps or severe pain in the lower abdomen;
  • Fever or shivering;
  • Noticeable decrease in fetal movement;
  • Burning sensation when urinating or infrequent urination.

Stages of pregnancy:
First trimester

Periodic follow-up:
Visit your health care provider once a month.

Fetus development:
  • The most important characteristic of the development of the fetus at this time is the beginning of the development of the brain and spinal cord.
  • The heart begins to beat at 5-6 weeks.
  • The placenta grows gradually until it is fully formed by the end of 12 weeks.

Examinations needed in this trimester:
X-ray of neck thickness:
The thickness of the neck of the fetus is measured from 11 to 14 weeks by a doctor or certified radiologist, and when the thickness increases from the normal rate, it may be an indication of:
  • Chromosomal abnormalities (e.g.: Down syndrome).
  • Heart disease.
  • Genetic or hereditary diseases.
  • Fetal abnormalities (e.g.: hiatal hernia).
  • Thickening of the neck may be normal in some fetuses.

Maternal blood test:
  • The blood test is done for the pregnant mother from the tenth week onwards; This is to determine the chromosomes of the fetus, by taking a sample from the mother and examining the genetic material secreted by the fetus in the mother's blood, and its accuracy in determining Down syndrome is 99%.
  • When a high neck thickness appears in the fetus and the mother’s blood analysis is positive for a chromosomal abnormality, a sample of the placenta or amniotic fluid should be examined.

Second trimester
Periodic follow-up:
Visit your health care provider once a month.

Fetus development:
  • The pregnant woman begins to feel the fetus during this period, and it differs from one woman to another. If she is pregnant for the first time, she feels it late at 18-20 weeks, but if she was pregnant before, she feels it at 13-16 weeks.
  • At this stage, the formation of the genital organs of the fetus begins, and the sex of the fetus is determined during this period at the age of 18-20 weeks.

Third trimester
  • Seventh and eighth: visit every two weeks.
  • Ninth: visit every week.
Fetus development:
  • This period is characterized by the completion of the growth of the fetus and the weight of the fetus during this period increases rapidly.
  • The fetus moves inside the mother's belly and turns its head down in preparation for childbirth.
  • Lung development is complete at this time.

Last Update : 01 June 2023 01:55 PM
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