International Events

Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in Democratic Republic of the Congo
 

Outbreak at a Glance:

  • ​On April 22nd, 2022, the health authorities of the African Nations declared an outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) after a case was confirmed for a 31-year-old citizen of Democratic Republic of the Congo.
  • He began experiencing symptoms on April 5th, 2022.
  • He was admitted to the intensive care unit on April 21st, 2022, and passed away one day later.
  • On April 25th, the second case was recorded for a 25-year-old woman from the same family, who passed away on the same day, but she began experiencing symptoms on April 13th.
  • Hundreds of potential contacts are being followed up, and no new cases have been reported yet.
  • There are no specific guidelines issued by the World Health Organization (WHO) related to this outbreak yet.
Symptoms:
  • ​Early symptoms can include: fever, fatigue, muscle pain, headache, and sore throat.
  • This is followed by vomiting, diarrhea, skin rash, symptoms of impaired kidney and liver function, in addition to internal and external bleeding.
  • The case fatality rates have varied from 25% to 90%.
Epidemiology:
  • ​The incubator of the virus is some wild animals, most prominently: fruit bats, porcupines, and monkeys.
  • It is transmitted from an infected animal to a person.
  • It is transmitted between people directly through body secretions, or indirectly through the use of contaminated personal items.
  • in 1976, the first EVD outbreak occurred in Central African Republic.
  • Since 1976, 16 epidemic outbreaks have been recorded in some African countries.
Diagnosis:
  • Cases are diagnosed and confirmed based on laboratory tests, most prominently: antibody test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test.
Treatment:
  • ​Symptom control in palliative therapy, mainly rehydration.
  • Two monoclonal antibodies (Inmazeb and Ebanga) were approved for the treatment of EVD by the US Food and Drug Administration in late 2020.
Prevention and Control:
  • ​Raising awareness of risk factors for Ebola infection and protective measures.
  • The Ervebo vaccine, which was approved in 2022, is given to those individuals aged 18 years and older.
  • The Zabdeno vaccine, which was approved in 2020, is administered in two doses, 8 months apart, for those aged one year and older.​

Last Update : 15 June 2022 11:11 AM
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