International Events

Dengue Fever Outbreak in Nepal

October 10, 2022

Announcing the Outbreak:
  • ​From January to September 28, 2022, 28,109 cases of dengue fever were recorded, including confirmed and suspected cases, with 38 deaths from all over Nepal.
  • Dengue fever cases have increased since July 2022 in conjunction with the rainy season, and most of them were in September.
Dengue Fever Disease:
  • ​Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes that is common in tropical and subtropical regions of the world.
  • Dengue fever ranges from a mild infection that causes a flu-like fever to a severe fever known as dengue hemorrhagic fever, which leads to bleeding and a sudden drop in blood pressure (shock) or death.
  • Millions of people around the world become infected with dengue fever every year. They are most common in Southeast Asia, western Pacific islands, Latin America, and Africa. Recently it has begun to spread to new areas, such as Europe and southern regions of the United States.
Disease Transmission:
  • ​Dengue fever is caused by any of the four types of dengue virus (DEN 1-4).
  • Dengue fever infection cannot be caught by direct contact with an infected person, but it is transmitted through mosquito bites.
  • After recovery from dengue, long-term immunity is formed against the type of virus that causes infection, but not against other three types of dengue virus. This means that a person may become infected again in the future with one of other three types of the virus. The risk of severe dengue fever increases if a person has had dengue fever more than once.
Symptoms and Diagnosis:
  • ​Many people may not show any signs of illness when infected with dengue fever. When symptoms appear, they may be misdiagnosed as symptoms of other diseases such as influenza, and usually begin to appear between four and 10 days after being bitten by an infectious mosquito.
  • Dengue fever is suspected when a high temperature (40°C/104°F) is accompanied by one or more of the following symptoms: severe headache, pain behind the eyes, muscle and joint pain, nausea and vomiting, swollen glands and rash.
  • Most people recover within a week or so. In some cases, life-threatening complications may occur, known as acute dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome.
  • Warning indicators for acute dengue fever, which is a life-threatening emergency, can develop rapidly. Warning signs usually begin in the first day or within two days after fever is gone, and may include the following: severe abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, rapid breathing, bleeding gums or nosebleeds, tiredness, insomnia, an enlarged liver, and blood in vomit or stool.
  • Blood tests that detect presence of the virus that causes dengue fever include the following:
    • ​Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the presence and type of dengue virus
    • Antibody test that detects the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies.
  • ​There is no specific treatment for dengue fever, as the disease resolves on its own within several days and may persist for several weeks. The treatment of dengue fever depends on treating the symptoms as follows: Use of pain relievers and antipyretics such as paracetamol, and drugs that increase the chance of bleeding such as ibuprofen, diclofenac, and aspirin should be avoided. Take enough rest and drink plenty of fluids.
  • The disease may develop into severe dengue fever that may lead to death, which requires a hospital stay of one to two weeks to provide the necessary health care to replace lost fluids by the body, and to monitor vital signs.
  • ​In all parts of the world where dengue is common, an approved dengue vaccine (known as dingvaxia) is available for people aged 9 to 45 who have had at least one exposure to dengue. The vaccine is taken in three doses within 12 months.
  • Vaccination with the vaccine is also authorized for people who have had a blood test confirming previous infection with dengue viruses - this is known as seropositivity. For people who have not been exposed to dengue (sero-negative), vaccination with the vaccine increases the risk of severe dengue fever and future hospitalization.
  • In 2019, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the vaccine for people aged 9-16 years who have previously been exposed to dengue and who live in US territories where dengue is common, such as American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands.
World Health Organization confirms that prevention of mosquito bites and control of mosquito populations are essential ways to prevent spread of dengue fever. If you live in or travel to an area where dengue fever is common, these guidelines may help you reduce the risk of mosquito bites:
  • ​Stay in air-conditioned or airtight accommodation where mosquitoes that carry dengue viruses are most active from dawn to dusk, but can also bite at night.
  • When you go into mosquito-infested areas, wear a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, socks, and shoes.
  • Use a mosquito repellent where you can apply permethrin to clothing, shoes, camping gear, and mosquito nets. You can also buy clothes that already have permethrin therein. To keep your skin safe, use a repellent that contains DET at a concentration of at least 10%.
  • Eliminate the breeding places where mosquitoes lay their eggs. Empty and clean containers that hold standing water, such as plant containers, animal bowls, and vases, at least once a week. Keep containers of standing water covered between each cleaning.
  • WHO
  • Center for Disease Control and Prevention

Last Update : 05 November 2022 11:21 PM
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