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Marburg Virus Disease

Marburg Virus Disease (MVD), formerly known as Marburg haemorrhagic fever, is a severe and highly fatal disease. Marburg and Ebola viruses are both members of the Filoviridae family (filovirus). Though caused by different viruses, the two diseases are clinically similar. Both diseases are rare and have the capacity to cause outbreaks with high fatality rates.
Geography of MVD Outbreak:
Two large outbreaks that occurred simultaneously in Marburg and Frankfurt in Germany, and in Belgrade, Serbia, in 1967, led to the initial recognition of the disease. The outbreak was associated with laboratory work using African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) imported from Uganda. Subsequently, outbreaks and sporadic cases have been reported in Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, South Africa (in a person with recent travel history to Zimbabwe) and Uganda.
Disease Definition:
MVD is a highly virulent disease that causes haemorrhagic fever with malaise, headache, muscle aches, a sore throat, followed by vomiting, diarrhoea, then skin rash, haemorrhage often with liver damage, renal failure, and thrombocytopenia.
Incubation Period:
From 3 to 9 days.
Infectious Period:
Fever often occurs in response to infection that increases with the development of the disease stages, and continues through the period of contamination of blood or body fluids with the virus. Marburg virus transmission, via infected semen, has been documented up to seven weeks after clinical recovery.
Source of Infection:
The source of infection has not yet been known exactly despite extensive research conducted on the topic.
Methods of Disease Transmission:
  1. ​The disease is transmitted through close contact with an infected person’s blood, secretions, organs, or via sexual intercourse.
  2. Transmission, also, occurs through the use of contaminated syringes and needles at healthcare centres and hospitals.
Marburg Virus Tests: Antibody or serology tests are conducted to look for antibodies in your blood that fight the virus that causes the disease, in addition to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Tests.
Currently there are no vaccines or antiviral treatments approved for MVD. However, the supportive care is the only therapy that improves survival. The therapy includes isolation, balancing fluids and minerals in the patient's body, while maintaining the blood oxygen level and blood pressure, as well as replacing the lost blood and clotting factors. Doctors also monitor any complications that may appear, and treat any infections that may affect the patient during this period.
Disease Prevention:
Currently, there is no vaccine or antiviral treatment approved for MVD.

Last Update : 28 July 2022 11:56 AM
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