Health Days 2011
International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking
Introduction:
The General Assembly decided to observe 26th of June every year as the International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking. This reflects the Assembly's determination to strengthen action and cooperation to have an international society free of drug abuse.

On 26/6/1986, the resolution of having this date as an International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking has come as a result of recommendations taken by the International Conference on Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking held in the same year.

On 23/2/1990, the General Assembly approved the international work plan to fight drugs and to abide by such an International Day as a part of its efforts to raise awareness of societies and stress on preventive measures.

International Approved Date: 26\6\2011
Regionally Approved Date: 24\7\1432 H 

Theme of the International Day:
Drug is the perfect killer of the society

Targeted Categories: 
  • Family & parents
  • Teachers
  • International, health, social and psychological decision-makers
  • Rehabilitation centers and their employees
  • General public
Objectives:
  • Stimulating social awareness concering harms of drugs and their health, psychological, social and economic bad effects.
  • Emphasizing the link between drug addiction and poor health.
  • Bringing awareness to the public concerning the negative impact of illicit trafficking.
  • Strengthening the cooperation among concerned organizations against drug abuse and illicit trafficking.
  • Empowering people to become active in fighting drugs.
Related Links:
  • http://www.ncnc.org.sa/drugs/html/indexAr.aspx
  • http://www.international.drugabuse.gov/information/intl_forum_2011.html .
  • http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/teen-drug-abuse/My01099
  • http://www.drugabuse.gov/Infofacts/driving.html
  • http://www.drugabuse.gov/rugPages/DrugsofAbuse.html
  • http://www.emedicinehealth.com/narcotic_abuse/page8_em.htm
  • http://www.emedicinehealth.com/narcotic_abuse/page6_em.htm
  • http://wiqayah.com/index.php  
International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking Scientific Article  ​

Introduction:
Drug Abuse has become one of the Most Critical Problems afflicting all countries worldwide. Due to the major dangers brought about by drugs abuse on all health, social, economic and security respects, all Countries have diligently sought to fight such a problem which has no longer been confined to a definite type of drugs neither has it been related to a certain Country or a segment of Society. In addition, new and numerous compounds have appeared to have obviously bad effects on brain and the Nervous System.

  Drug abuse poses significant health challenges to the whole world.  They are internationally prevented due to its serious effects on health, social, economic and security matters. This problem is no longer confined to one type of drug or to a particular country or a specific class of the community. There are several new kinds of drugs affecting the brain and nervous system. 

Addiction:
Addiction is the result of continuously and heavily using narcotic substances, till such a user cannot psychologically or physically dispense with such substances... After the body develops Drug tolerance, it becomes in need for more doses of such drugs to achieve the same effects previously experienced. With such constantly increasing doses in a short period, both body and mind are so much effected that the addict is no longer able to perform his daily duties without such drugs..  If the Addict attempts to stop drug abuse, a lot of dangerous physical and psychological symptoms will instantly appear. In such a case, the Addict suffers from what is called "withdrawal symptoms" which may lead either to his death or to addicting alcohol, drugs, psychotropic drugs or sedative-hypnotics drugs.

Definition of Drug:
Drugs are those plant or manufactured compounds that contain hypnotic or sedative elements, which, if used for any purpose other than that medically specified, will inflict body with apathy and lethargy. In such cases, drugs also affect the central nervous system, respiratory system and circulatory system with chronic diseases, leading to a state of familiarity or so-called (addiction). In addition,  abusing drugs causes severe damage to mental, physical and social health till the user is considered "an addict".

Reasons for Addiction:
  • lack of awareness regarding dangers of drug abuse.
  • Poor religious commitment and inappropriate social upbringing.
  • Broken homes.
  • Poverty, ignorance and illiteracy.
  • extraordinary wealth.
  • Parental negligence towards their children.
  • Lack of dialogue among family members.
  • Bad companionship .
  • Unemployment.
Signs of Addiction:
  • Sudden change in lifestyle and frequent absence from work or school.
  • Significant downgrade in school and deterioration of performance at work.
  • Absence from home for a long especially at night.
  • Secretiveness.
  • Extreme mood changes.
  • Weight loss or gain.
  • Changes in social groups, new and unusual friends.
  • Tending to be Lonely.
  • Spending money without thinking and demanding for more.
  • Anger for trivial reasons.
  • Escaping responsibility.
Types of Drugs:
There are different types of drugs depending on how they are classified. Some of them are classified as per their impact, while others are defined in terms of production or color in addition to another classification that is based on addiction whether it is physical or psychological. Accordingly, there are many types of drugs varying in degrees of effect and functioning in the nervous system. This may include the following:
  • Hashish and marijuana.
  • Antipsychotic drugs.
  • Stimulant drugs such as cocaine.
  • Hallucinogens such as LSD.
  • Inhalants such as glue.
  • Medical painkillers and sedatives such as morphine.
Symptoms of Addiction:
  • Symptoms associated with the use of hashish or marijuana: 
    If someone is intoxicated by Cannabis, he may experience feelings of greatness and happiness, with his eyes red, his mouth and throat dry, in addition to impaired balance and coordination and increasing appetite in addition to an elevation in heart pulse and blood pressure. He also may suffer from memory difficulties. 
  • Symptoms associated with abusing antipsychotic drugs:
    If someone abuses antipsychotic drugs, he may experience feelings of relaxation, delirium and inability to concentrate. It may also lead to a loss of consciousness. Moreover, it’s the main causes of death due to respiratory disorders.
  • Symptoms associated with doping amphetamine:
    If someone dopes amphetamine, he may experience lack of appetite, weight loss, anxiety, instability and inability to sleep, in addition to an elevation in heart pulse, temperature and blood pressure. While the addict seems to be aggressive, confused and agitated, he will experience sadness and mental disorders if the drugs rate decreased.
  • Symptoms associated with analgesics and sedatives: 
    If someone heavily uses analgesics or sedatives, he experiences less pain and lack of reassurance, numbness, depression, mental confusion, slow breathing and constipation.
Effects of Addiction:
  • Religious Effects:
    Drugs lead to a waste of time and mind.  Addicts cannot perform their worships according to proper rules of Islam. Addiction may lead to committing forbidden actions such as murder, robbery, assault and others.
  • Physical Effects:
    Addiction results in serious devastating damages afflicting the addict. It affects efficiency of all organs in the body. While each drug has its own effects, there are common effects of all drugs such as atrophy in the cerebral cortex that controls thinking skills. Abusing drugs, even if not reaching addiction levels, affects mental capacity and leads to atrophy of the brain cells. 
    Addiction leads to many diseases such as:
    • Cancer of mouth, pharynx, larynx and esophagus.
    • Liver damage and cirrhosis.
    • Skin injuries as a result of repeated infusions.
    • Slow responses and reactions.
    • Weakness of human body's immunity and disease resistance.
    • AIDS and hepatitis epidemic.
    • Fits of delirium and tremors, loss of consciousness, cirrhosis of the liver and enlarged spleen, inflamed nerves including the optic nerve.
    • Frequent vomiting and loss of appetite; leading to a severe weight loss. Drugs also irritate the mucous membranes of the stomach and intestines; leading to congestion and ulceration.
    • Death as a result of overdoses.
      • AIDS and Drugs:
        Abusing drugs causes mental disturbance and leads to enter in forbidden relationships that transmit HIV infection. This is due to the following:
        • Addicts may share needles or other tools.
        • HIV can be transmitted through intravenous drug use
        • Addicts are more vulnerable to HIV infection as a result of being in an environment of forbidden sexual relations.
        • Addicts lose awareness regarding the importance of medications intake.
  • Psychological Effects:
    Addiction leads to mood swings, lack of concentration, anxiety, nervousness, depression and excessive fun, in addition to mental disorders like schizophrenia and behavioral disorders that result from the addicts' hunger for money.
  • Economic and Social Effects:
    Addicts are usually ready to pay high prices for drugs. On the other hand, their productivity decreases leading to a loss of their jobs, which will force them to commit thefts and crimes. Such consequences include undermining the security of society and family. Addicts cannot fulfill their obligations toward their families, which leads to losses in the family’s financial and emotional security , divorce,  homeless children and  increasing rates of accidents especially traffic accidents and suicides.

    In addition, addicts imposes so much burden on society with regards to the high expenses of treatment and establishing clinics that deal with addiction, in addition to the high pressure on security systems to combat drugs and prosecute illicit trafficking and smuggling. Moreover, drugs high prices lead to a portion of the national income being illegally moved to criminal organizations such as mafia.
Drugs Treatment:
When attempting to treat an addict, consequences of stopping drugs and non-sudden stopping  should be understood. Addicts should not suddenly stop taking drugs, otherwise he will be vulnerable to more bad effects. Drugs quitting consequences differ according to their functions and effects, whether they are an activating, inhibiting or soothing drug. In general, the consequences are exactly opposite to the effect of the drug.

Sudden quitting leads to sweating, shivering, body pain, red-eye and high temperature. In addition, the addict will be so irritated that he may lose his life or hurt others around him. It also could cause seizures and psychological and physical instability; driving the addict to search and fight for drugs. The symptoms of low quantity of drugs in blood cannot be tolerated if it’s not under specialized medical supervision.
  • Toxins Removal:
    The first phase of treatment appears in removing toxins through safely withdrawing drugs or alcohol from body. This process lasts for weeks till complete withdrawal.
  • Treatment with Medications:
    That includes using medications such as methadone and anti-opioids for opium addiction and treatment of nicotine (like patches, gum and nasal spray) for cigarettes addiction.
  • Social and Psychological Treatment:
    • Cognitive behavioral therapy:
      • Addicts learn the methods and strategies to deal with and overcome longing for drugs.
      • Developing a comprehensive plan to deal with topics that pose future threats.
      • Learning and practicing  decision-making skills and drug or alcohol refusal skills.
      • Capturing ways to avoid and prevent relapse and in addition to dealing with it if occurred.
    • Strategies to increase motivation and enthusiasm to change:
      • Helping addicts to increase motivation to accept the idea of treatment and continuing it.
      • Respecting, supporting, protecting and displaying empathy to patients.
      • Giving advice in appropriate times.
      • Removing barriers that keep him from engaging in treatment.
      • Reducing addicts' desire for drugs through illustrating the benefits and the costs of change.
      • Assisting in developing clear and reasonable objectives.
    • Group therapy:
      A self-help support group that relies on a twelve-step program, formed to share experience with each other.
    • Social therapy:
      It aims to deal with any family or social problems that may contribute in returning to drug abuse.
Protection from Addiction:
  • The role of the family:
    • Proper social upbringing: 
      This includes communication and continuous dialogue with children, strengthening the belief and religious restraints, good role model by the parents and the adult family members. All such methods have a great effect in forming the behavior of the children while making sure to be serious when dealing in a lovely way with children to avoid excessive control and extraordinary coquetry. 
    • Enhancing the family atmosphere:
      The secure family atmosphere that is full of love and affection leads to a strong bond of such a family and allows each of its members to achieve his goals and ambitions. 
    • Satisfying needs of youth:
      It is important to encourage youth to practice useful hobbies and involve in various sports and entertainment activities. This consequently helps in utilizing their leisure times keeping them away from thinking about practicing bad habits. 
  • The role of Educational Bodies (schools – institutions - universities):
    • Providing sound educational climate.
    • Preparing specialized educational programs to raise awareness regarding dangers of drug abuse and its negative effects on the individual and society. This should be done according to advanced scientific criteria.
    • Paying attention to the religious aspect.
    • Activating the role of social workers in educational facilities to monitor behavior and delinquency and to address any potential bad influences.
  • The role of Media:
    The role of Media appears in Producing more programs dedicated to address several aspects of addiction and its negative effects on the individual and society. Such programs help in finding solutions to reduce this problem and methods for treatment and rehabilitation.
  • The role of Youth Sports Facilities:
    Youth and Sports Facilities can play a vital role through providing human and financial resources to promote sports to be availed for all members of society. They can also develop physical education programs in addition to strengthening the role of other concerned authorities.
  • The role of Scientific Research:
    • Developing advanced curricula for educational guidance programs about dealing with addiction.
    • Conducting objective field researches on reasons and motives behind drug abuse and addiction in addition to providing the most appropriate solutions to address this problem.
    • Increasing seminars and conferences relating to relevantly educating all sectors and members of society.
  • The role of Authorities concerned  drug addiction treatment and rehabilitation:
    • Following advanced scientific approaches with high technologies.
    • Increasing and updating qualified health clinics in coordination with relevant authorities.
    • Illustrating results and findings reached by such authorities with more credibility  and transparency in order to reach effective methods of dealing with addiction cases and specifying the required human and financial support.
    • Encouraging qualified volunteers or rehabilitated former addicts to participate in solving addiction problem.
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