Health Days 2011
World Blood Donor Day
Introduction 
On 14 June 2011, WHO  celebrates World Blood Donor Day with events to thank voluntary blood donors for their life-saving gifts of blood and to raise awareness of the need for safe blood and blood products, particularly in developing countries. 79 out of 80 developing countries have low blood donation rates (less than 10 per 1000 population), which is less than what is considered necessary to meet a nation’s basic requirements for blood.     

This annual event highlights the urgent need to increases blood donations through safe, sustainable methods adopted by health facilities and health decision makers.  

IN 2009, the number of blood donors in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was approximately 161,181.
 
World Blood Donor Day’s Key Objectives 
  • To increase the number of new blood donors globally.  
  • To creating a broader awareness of the importance of voluntary unpaid blood donations.  
  • To motivate more individuals to become regular voluntary unpaid blood donors.  
International Approved Date:     14\6\2011-06-04
Regionally Approved Date:          4\7\1432 H 

World Blood Donor Day Theme:  
“More blood. More life.”

Targeted recipient categories for donated blood: 
  • Cancer patients 
  • Accident victims  
  • Anemia patients 
  • Surgical patients  
General Objectives and Messages for Blood Donors 
  • Stimulate public awareness about the importance of blood transfusions in saving the lives of millions of people.   
  • Provide information and guidance to assure the availability of sufficient and stable supplies of safe blood for transfusion.   
  • Reassure blood donors that equipment used during donation is sterile and used only once. 
  • Blood donors are subjected to comprehensive clinical and laboratory testing to assure that their blood is safe for use. 
  • Improve the public’s knowledge about the importance of blood donation through awareness-raising lectures and seminars. 
World Blood Donor Day’s Logo  

Related Links 
  • http://www.who.int/worldblooddonorday/en/index.html
  • http://www.aabb.org/content
  • http://www.cbcsf.org/index-e.jsp?

Scientific Article (World Blood Donor Day) 
What is Blood Donation?  
Blood donation is a voluntary work. Studies proved that donating blood enhance the production of new Red Blood Cells. The volume of blood taken is 450 to 500 milliliters, less than 8% of your total blood volume (the average adult has 5 to 6 liters of blood). Your body will replace the lost fluid within short time.       

People Who are in Need of Blood Donation 
  • Accidents victims  
  • Surgical patients  
  • Leukemia and other cancer patients 
  • Blood disorder patients, i.e. anemia, Thalassemia and sickle cell anemia   
Growing Need for Safe Blood 
The need for safe and secure supplies of blood and blood products is universal. globally, at least 90 million units of blood are donated each year to save lives and improve  health. Nevertheless, demand for blood for transfusion continues to increases, and many countries can’t meet the existing needs. In many countries, this means inadequate supplies to replace blood lost in childbirth and to treat anemia that threatens the lives of children who have malaria or undernourished.  Everywhere, blood and blood products are needed for routine and emergency surgery, including life-saving treatment for growing numbers of people injured in road traffic accidents, and for treating congenital blood disorders. 

Information & Facts 
  • A healthy adult can donate blood without any risk. The body Compensate for blood loss in 24 hours while red blood cells takes few weeks.   
  • A person can donate once every three months, but not more than five times in a year  
  • People with health problems should not donate blood 
  • Men have more chances to donate blood than women due to their pregnancy, abortion, anemia, lose weight and other physiological changes. 
Blood Donation Requirements 
  • Blood donation process is based on medical and laboratory standards   
  • If you will donate blood, you will be asked to complete a donor registration form, which includes some questions about medical history, gender and general health. All of this information is confidential.
  • Medical examinations will be given, including checking temperature, pulse, blood pressure and weight. 
  • A blood sample will be taken to check hemoglobin levels and blood type. Also check if blood is safe and free of contagious diseases that can be transmitted by blood transfusion, such as HIV, hepatitis B, and syphilis.     
  • All used medical equipment is sterile, used only once and then discarded.  
  • You'll feel a small pinch as the needle goes in. it is normal to feel dizzy while taking blood.   
  • You may feel nervous if it is your first time to donate blood. 
  • Blood donation process is painless, safe and simple. Giving blood takes just 5-10 minutes.
  • After donation, it is recommended to rest for 10 to 15 minutes and increase your fluid intake
Blood Donors Requirements
  • Be in generally good health and feeling well. 
  • Be at least 18 years of age; upper age 65 
  • Weight: at least 50Kg 
  • Hemoglobin level: 13 to 17.5 for men and 12.5 to 14.5 for women 
  • Pulse: 50 to 100 beats/min and regular 
  • Temperature: Should not exceed 37.5c
  • Blood Pressure: acceptable range is 180/100 to 100/60.
Advantages of Donating Blood 
  • Stimulate the bone marrow to produce new red blood cells, white blood cells and platelet  
  • Refresh the blood system 
  • Reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases 
  • Get rid of excess iron accumulated in our body which may lead to hemochromatosis 
People Who Cannot Donate Blood 

Some people can be deferred from donating blood temporarily or permanently. Some of these reasons are:

  • Temporarily Deferred
    • People who can’t donate blood for three years 
      • Have visited areas where malaria is found in the last 3 years. 
      • Have had malaria in the past 3 years. 
      • Have had Maltese fever and in the past 3 years 
    • People who can’t donate blood for one year 
      • Have received blood, plasma or other types of components in the past year  
      • Nursing staff  works in Dialysis units  
      • Have been tattooed, or donors with pierced ears or nose  
      • Have been exposed  with someone with HIV or hepatitis
      • Have had gonorrhea
      • Have had syphilis 
      • Have had a serious illness or major surgery in the past 12 months 
    • Pregnant woman cannot donate blood unless after 6 months of delivery 
    • People who can’t donate blood for 4 weeks  
      • Have had injections for polio, chicken pox, mumps, rubella, tetanus, diphtheria, influenza and hepatitis.  
      • Are taking Alrookyotan, Bruskar and Prozac 
    • People who can’t donate blood for 1 weeks  
      • Are not feeling good, i.e. high temperature, sore throat or flue during the past week 
      • Have taken antibiotics within the past week  
  • Permanently Differed
    People who have medical conditions, including: 
    • Cancer 
    • Diabetes (take Insulin)  
    • Epilepsy 
    • Heart diseases 
    • Hepatitis B,C 
    • Kidney diseases
    • Allachmania
    • Lung disease 
    • SARS 
    • HIV
    • Tuberculosis
    • Brain blood clot 
    • Drug addicts or have been  injected  with drugs 
    • Are or have been engaged in prohibited relationships
    • Shown some AIDS symptoms, i.e. fever, diarrhea, lymphadenopathy, rapid weight lose, continuous coughing, white spots in the mouth and night sweats
Precautions Before and After Blood Donation  
  • Before donation 
    No need to be fasting before donating. It is preferable to eat non greasy food before two hours from donation  
  • After donation 
    After donating you sit in an observation area, where you rest and eat a light snack. After 10 to 15 minutes, you can leave. After your blood donation:
    • Drink extra fluids for the next day or two.
    • Avoid strenuous physical activity or heavy lifting for the next five hours.
    • If you feel lightheaded, lie down with your feet up until the feeling passes.
    • Keep the bandage on your arm for at least  4 hours  
    • If you have bleeding after removing the bandage, put pressure on the site and raise your arm for three to five minutes.
    • If bleeding or bruising occurs under the skin, apply a cold pack to the area periodically during the first 24 hours.
    • If your arm is sore, take a pain reliever such as acetaminophen. Avoid taking aspirin or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others).
    • Avoid smoking after donating
    • Don’t lift heavy things using the used arm in blood donation for 12 hours   
Contact the blood donor center or your doctor if you: 
  • Continue to feel nauseated, lightheaded or dizzy after resting, eating and drinking.
  • Notice a raised bump, continued bleeding or pain at the needle-stick site when you remove the bandage.
  • Feel pain or tingling down your arm, into your fingers.
  • Become ill with signs and symptoms of a cold or flu, such as fever, headache or sore throat, within four days after your blood donation.
Blood Donation Side Effects 
Usually, there are no side effects for blood donation. It is common to experience slight dizziness or lightheadedness after blood donation. Redness may occur in the injection area.   

Blood Types 
Blood types are very important when transferring blood from a person to another. Blood types are classified as A, B, AB or O and the  Rh factor. The Rh factor refers to the presence or absence of a specific antigen, a substance capable of stimulating an immune response, in the blood. So you're either Rh positive or Rh negative, meaning you carry the antigen or you don't, i.e. if your blood group is (A+ve) that means that your blood type is A and your Rh factor is positive and (A-ve) means that your blood type is A and your Rh factor is negative. Positive Rh is more common that negative Rh since it is a dominate gene. 

   A+  A-  B+  B-  AB+  AB-  O+  O-
 A+​
ü  ü          ü  ü 
 A-   ü            ü 
 B+     ü  ü      ü  ü 
 B-       ü        ü 
 AB+ ü  ü  ü  ü  ü  ü  ü  ü 
 AB-   ü    ü    ü    ü 
 O+             ü  ü 
 O-               ü 
 
In emergencies, blood type  O, as well as O plasma and platelets,  can be given to anyone. A group AB individual can receive blood from  any group and donate plasma to all blood groups.  

Required Laboratory Tests Before Blood Donation 
All blood donors will be tested before donation for the following: 
  • Blood type and Rh factor 
  • Presence of antibodies 
  • Presence of hepatitis (B,C), HIV and sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis   
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