Urologic Diseases

Prostatitis

​Overview:

Prostatitis is the swelling and inflammation of the prostate gland, caused by an infection.
Prostatitis affects men of all ages. It’s not clear what causes most cases of prostatitis. 
Antibiotics are used to treat the infection, and in rare cases, surgery may be needed. 
Food, diet, and nutrition do not play a role in developing or preventing prostatitis.

Prostate:
The prostate is a part of the male reproductive system, which includes the penis, prostate, seminal vesicles, and testicles. The prostate is located just below the bladder and in front of the rectum. It is about the size of a walnut and weighs approximately 20 gm. The prostate gland is composed of muscular tissue, glandular tissue, and a rough fibrous surface. The prostate gland secretes a thick, whitish fluid that helps transport sperm.

Prostatitis:
Prostatitis is a common condition that causes inflammation (swelling) of the prostate gland, and is often painful. Prostatitis can affect males of all ages, but it most commonly affects men between of the age 30-50. 

Other names: Prostatosis

Types:
  1. Chronic prostatitis, also known as chronic pelvic pain syndrome: The most common type of prostatitis. It is an inflammation of the prostate and an irritation of the nerves that supply this area, not an infection. 
  2. Chronic bacterial prostatitis: It is an inflammation caused by a bacterial infection of the prostate gland. It is uncommon, with symptoms that come and go over a long period of time.
  3. Acute bacterial prostatitis:  An inflammation of the prostate gland caused by a bacterial infection. Its symptoms are acute, sudden, painful, and potentially serious, requiring immediate treatment.
  4. Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis: It is an inflammation of the prostate that does not cause symptoms and is not due to an infection. It usually gets diagnosed by chance when other problems occur.

Cause:
It's not clear what causes most cases of prostatitis; however, it is known that bacterial prostatitis is caused by bacterial infections. Nonbacterial prostatitis may be associated with stress, nerve inflammation, irritation, injury, or previous urinary tract infections (UTIs). 


Risk Factors:
  • UTIs
  • Urinary catheter, which is an elastic tube used to drain urine from the bladder.
  • Sexually transmitted infections  
  • AIDS
  • Pelvic injuries
  • Age (30-50 years) 
  • A history of prostatitis
  • Sexual abuse

Symptoms:
  • Pain, which may be severe, in or around the penis (groin area), testicles, anus, lower abdomen or lower back.
  • Painful ejaculation.
  • Pain or burning sensation when urinating (dysuria) especially at night, and seeing blood in your urine. 
  • Difficulty urinating, such as dribbling or hesitant urination and acute urinary retention (AUR).
  • Fatigue, fever and shivering.
  • Sexual problems (e.g., erectile dysfunction, painful ejaculation, and post-sex pelvic pain).

When to see a doctor?
  • Pelvic pain, difficulty or pain urinating, or painful ejaculation.
  • Inability to urinate or seeing blood in urine.
  • A painful, frequent, and urgent need to urinate, with a fever and chills.
  • Pain in the lower abdomen or urinary tract.

Complications:
  • Bacterial infection in the bloodstream.
  • Prostatic abscess (a sinus filled with pus, or pus in the prostate).
  • Sexual impotence.
  • Inflammation of the genitals near the prostate.

Diagnosis:
Each type of prostatitis requires a different type of treatment. Your doctor may combine several types of tests to diagnose your condition. 
  • Medical history
  • Clinical examination
  • Other tests, including: Prostatic secretions test, urine test, rectal examination, semen sample test, cystoscopy, ultrasound, and CT scan 

Treatment:
Prostatitis is mostly a treatable condition, depending on its type. If the problem cannot be treated, symptoms are often relieved by following the recommended treatment. Treatment may include antibiotics or alpha blockers. These medications help relax the bladder neck and the muscle fibers where your prostate joins your bladder. It can alleviate some of the symptoms like painful urination. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) might make you more comfortable. In rare cases, a surgery may be required. 

Guidelines for people with Prostatitis:
  • Limit or avoid alcohol, caffeine, and spicy or acidic foods, which can irritate your bladder.  
  • Soak in a warm bath (sitz bath) or use a heating pad.
  • Use a cushion when sitting for prolonged periods. 
  • Drink plenty of fluids to flush bacteria out of the bladder.
  • Avoid activities that can irritate your prostate, such as prolonged sitting or bicycling.

FAQs:
  • Is diet related to prostate infections?
    • Food, diet, and nutrition do not play a not role in developing or preventing prostatitis. However, during the treatment of bacterial prostatitis, your doctor may recommend increasing fluid intake and avoiding or limiting substances that could irritate your bladder.
  • Could persistent prostatitis lead to prostate cancer?
    • Some studies suggest that prostatitis may be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, but other studies have found no link between prostatitis and prostate cancer.
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Last Update : 12 October 2021 08:48 AM
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