Hematology
Blood Donation
​Introduction
 
The need for safe and secure supplies of blood and blood products is universal. Globally, at least 90 million units of blood are donated each year to save lives and improve health. Nevertheless, the demand for blood transfusion is on the increases, and many countries can’t meet their needs of blood. In many countries, this means inadequate supplies to replace the blood lost in childbirth and to treat anemia that threatens the lives of children who have malaria or undernourished. Everywhere, blood and blood products are needed for routine and emergency surgery, including life-saving treatment for growing numbers of people injured in traffic accidents, and for treating congenital blood disorders.
 
Key Facts:
 
  • A healthy adult can donate blood without any risk. The body is able to compensate lost blood in 24 hours, but red blood cells take few weeks. 
  • A person can donate once every three months, but not more than five times in a year.
  • People with health problems will have to refrain from donating blood.
  • It is more appropriate for men to donate blood than women; due to such women-related circumstances as pregnancy, abortion, anemia, weight loss and other physiological changes.
 
Requirements of Blood Donation:
 
  • Blood donation process is based on medical and laboratory standards 
  • If you intend to donate blood, you will have to fill in a donor registration form, which includes some questions about medical history, gender and general health. This information will be kept confidential.
  • Medical examinations will be conducted, including checking temperature, pulse, blood pressure and weight.
  • A blood sample will be taken to check hemoglobin levels and blood type. Also blood will be checked up to determine whether it is safe and free of contagious diseases that can be transmitted by blood transfusion, such as HIV, hepatitis B, and syphilis.  
  • All the used medical equipments are sterile, and will be used only once and then disposed of.
  • You'll feel a little pinch as the needle goes in. It is normal to feel dizzy while taking blood. 
  • You may feel nervous if it is your first time to donate blood.
  • Blood donation process is painless, safe and simple. Giving blood takes just 5-10 minutes.
  • After donation, it is recommended to rest for 10 to 15 minutes and increase your fluid intake.
 
Requirements Necessary to be Met by Blood Donors:
 
  • Blood donors have to be enjoying good health and feeling well.
  • Blood donors have to be at least 18 years age (maximum age being: 65 years).
  • Weight: at least 50Kg
  • Hemoglobin level: 13 to 17.5 for men and 12.5 to 14.5 for women
  • Pulse: 50 to 100 beats/min and regular
  • Temperature: should not exceed 37.5° C
  • Blood Pressure: acceptable range is 180/100 to 100/60.
 
Advantages of Blood Donation:
 
  • Stimulating the bone marrow to produce new red blood cells, white blood cells and platelet
  • Refreshing the blood system
  • Reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases
  • Getting rid of excess iron accumulated in our body which may lead to hemochromatosis.
 
People who cannot Donate Blood:
 
People who can’t donate blood for three years: 
  • •    Those who visited areas where malaria is found in the last 3 years.
  • •    People who suffered malaria in the past 3 years.
  • •    People with Maltese fever in the past 3 years.
 
People who can’t donate blood for one year:
 
  • People who received blood, plasma or other types of components in the past year.
  • Nursing staff working in Dialysis units.
  • People who have been tattooed, or donors with pierced ears or nose.
  • Those who have been in contact with HIV or hepatitis patients.
  • Patients with gonorrhea.
  • Patients with syphilis.
  • People suffering from a serious disease or those who have had a major surgery in the past 12 months.
  • Pregnant woman cannot donate blood unless after 6 months of delivery.
 
People who can’t donate blood for 4 weeks:
 
  • Those who have had the vaccination for polio, chicken pox, mumps, rubella, tetanus, diphtheria, influenza and hepatitis.
  • People taking Alrookyotan, Bruskar and Prozac
    
People who can’t donate blood for 1 week:
 
  • Those feeling not good, i.e. high temperature, sore throat or flue during the past week.
  • Thos who have taken antibiotics within the past week.
 
People who can't never donate blood due to medical conditions, including:
 
  • Cancer
  • Diabetes (take Insulin)
  • Epilepsy
  • Heart diseases
  • Hepatitis B,C
  • Kidney diseases
  • Allachmania
Lung disease
  • SARS
  • HIV
  • Tuberculosis
  • Brain blood clot
  • Drug addicts or have been  injected  with drugs
  • Are or have been engaged in prohibited relationships
  • Shown some AIDS symptoms, i.e. fever, diarrhea, lymphadenopathy, rapid weight lose, continuous coughing, white spots in the mouth and night sweats.
 
Precautions to Be Taken before and after Blood Donation:
 
Before donation:
No need to be fasting before donating. It is preferable to eat non greasy food before two hours from donation.
 
After donation:
 
After donating you sit in an observation area, where you rest and eat a light snack. After 10 to 15 minutes, you can leave. After your blood donation:
 
  • Drink extra fluids for the next day or two.
  • Avoid strenuous physical activity or heavy lifting for the next five hours.
  • If you feel lightheaded, lie down with your feet up until the feeling passes.
  • Keep the bandage on your arm for at least  4 hours
  • If you have bleeding after removing the bandage, put pressure on the site and raise your arm for three to five minutes.
  • If bleeding or bruising occurs under the skin, apply a cold pack to the area periodically during the first 24 hours.
  • If your arm is sore, take a pain reliever such as acetaminophen. Avoid taking aspirin or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others).
  • Avoid smoking after donating
  • Don’t lift heavy things using the used arm in blood donation for 12 hours.
 
Contact the blood donation center or your doctor if you:
 
  • Continue to feel nauseated, lightheaded or dizzy after resting, eating and drinking.
  • Notice a raised bump, continued bleeding or pain at the needle-stick site when you remove the bandage.
  • Feel pain or tingling down your arm, into your fingers.
  • Become ill with signs and symptoms of a cold or flu, such as fever, headache or sore throat, within four days after your blood donation.
 
Blood Donation Side Effects:
 
Usually, there are no side effects for blood donation. It is common to experience slight dizziness or lightheadedness after blood donation. Redness may occur in the injection area.
 
Blood Types:
 
Blood types are very important when transferring blood from a person to another. Blood types are classified as A, B, AB or O and the Rh factor. The Rh factor refers to the presence or absence of a specific antigen, a substance capable of stimulating an immune response, in the blood. So you're either Rh positive or Rh negative, meaning you carry the antigen or you don't, i.e. if your blood group is (A+ve) that means that your blood type is A and your Rh factor is positive and (A-ve) means that your blood type is A and your Rh factor is negative. Positive Rh is more common that negative Rh since it is a dominate gene.
 

A+​ A-​ B+​ B-​ AB+​ AB-​ O+​ O-​
A+​ *​ *​
*​ *​
A-​ *​ *​
B+​ *​ *​ *​ *​
B-​​ *​
*​
AB+​ *​ *​ *​ *​ *​ *​ *​ *​
AB-​​ *​ *​
*​ *​
O+​​ *​ *​
O-​​
*​
 
In emergencies, blood type O can be given to anyone. A group AB individual can receive blood from any group and donate plasma to all blood groups. The blood type O, thus, is reckoned an all-giving group, while the blood type AB is regarded as the receiver-from-all group.
 
Required Laboratory Tests Before Blood Donation
 
  • Blood type and Rh factor, which determines whether the blood group is positive or negative.
  • Test of presence of viral antibodies for blood groups.
  • Presence of hepatitis (B, C).
  • Test of HIV/AIDS.
  • Sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis.
 
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Last Update 04 March 2018 11:08 AM
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